Who Owns Twitter?

As of April 25th, 2022, Elon Musk tried to take over Twitter. Musk tried to purchase the company at $54.20 per share, or about $44 billion. The deal finally closed by October 27th, 2022, and Elon Musk became the largest shareholder. Twitter has been delisted and it’s now a private-owned company.

Products and ServicesTwitter provides a social media platform that allows users to post short text-based messages known as “tweets.” Users can follow other accounts, engage with tweets through likes (formerly favorites) and retweets, send direct messages, and use hashtags to categorize and discover content. Twitter also offers advertising services for businesses to promote their products and services.Twitter generates revenue through advertising, making it a key part of its business model. The platform’s simplicity, real-time nature, and ease of use make it popular among users and advertisers. Hashtags and trending topics enable content discovery and engagement. Twitter’s advertising tools help businesses reach their target audiences effectively.Social media platform, tweets, following, likes, retweets, direct messages, hashtags, advertising services, revenue from advertising, user-friendly platform, content discovery, target audience reach.
Revenue StreamsTwitter primarily generates revenue through advertising, including promoted tweets, promoted trends, and promoted accounts. Advertisers pay Twitter to display their content to users based on targeting criteria such as demographics, interests, and keywords. Data licensing and other revenue sources, like data analysis services, contribute to Twitter’s income.Advertising is the primary revenue source for Twitter, with promoted content being a significant contributor. Advertisers pay to promote tweets, trends, and accounts to reach their target audiences. Data licensing and other revenue streams diversify income sources. Twitter’s extensive user data is valuable for businesses and researchers.Revenue from advertising, promoted tweets, promoted trends, promoted accounts, data licensing, data analysis services, diversified income sources, valuable user data.
Customer SegmentsTwitter’s customer base includes individuals, businesses, public figures, celebrities, journalists, and organizations. Individual users use Twitter to connect with friends, share opinions, and discover content. Businesses and public figures utilize Twitter for brand promotion, customer engagement, and real-time communication. Journalists and media organizations rely on Twitter for news dissemination.Twitter serves a broad customer base spanning individuals, businesses, celebrities, journalists, and organizations. It caters to diverse needs, from personal social networking to professional brand promotion and news dissemination. Twitter’s real-time nature makes it a valuable tool for staying updated on current events.Individuals, businesses, public figures, celebrities, journalists, organizations, social networking, brand promotion, customer engagement, news dissemination, real-time updates.
Distribution ChannelsTwitter’s primary distribution channel is its website and mobile app, where users can access and interact with the platform. The platform’s open API (Application Programming Interface) allows developers to create third-party applications and services that enhance the Twitter experience. Twitter also distributes content through its embedded tweets, which can appear on external websites and apps.Twitter’s website and mobile app are the primary distribution channels, providing users with direct access to the platform. The open API fosters innovation by enabling developers to create complementary services. Embedded tweets extend Twitter’s reach beyond its platform, appearing on external websites and apps, amplifying content and engagement.Website, mobile app, open API, third-party applications, embedded tweets, external distribution, content amplification, user engagement, innovation support.
Key PartnershipsTwitter collaborates with advertisers and businesses looking to promote their products and services. Media organizations and journalists form partnerships to disseminate news and engage with their audiences. Developers and third-party app creators use Twitter’s API to build tools and services. Twitter also partners with data licensees to monetize its user data.Advertiser partnerships are crucial to Twitter’s revenue generation. Media organizations and journalists rely on Twitter for news distribution and engagement. Collaborations with developers and third-party app creators enhance the platform’s functionality. Data licensing partnerships leverage Twitter’s valuable user data for monetization.Advertiser collaborations, media organization partnerships, journalist partnerships, developer collaborations, third-party app creator partnerships, data licensing partnerships, user data monetization.
Key ResourcesKey resources for Twitter include its user base, the Twitter platform, the Twitter API, advertising technology and tools, user-generated content, data analytics capabilities, and brand recognition. The user base and user-generated content drive engagement and ad inventory. The Twitter API fosters third-party app development, while advertising technology supports revenue growth.Twitter’s critical assets comprise its user base and user-generated content, which create engagement and ad opportunities. The Twitter API encourages innovation in app development. Advertising technology and tools drive revenue growth. Data analytics capabilities provide insights into user behavior. Strong brand recognition attracts users and advertisers.User base, user-generated content, Twitter platform, Twitter API, advertising technology, ad inventory, user engagement, app development innovation, revenue growth, data analytics, brand recognition.
Cost StructureTwitter incurs various costs, including expenses related to infrastructure maintenance, server hosting, user support, employee salaries and benefits, marketing and advertising campaigns, research and development, and acquisitions. Twitter also invests in data security and compliance measures.Costs associated with Twitter’s operations encompass infrastructure maintenance, server hosting, user support, employee compensation, marketing and advertising campaign expenditures, research and development investments, acquisitions, and data security measures. The platform’s continuous development and data security are essential operational expenses.Infrastructure maintenance costs, server hosting expenses, user support costs, employee compensation, marketing and advertising campaign costs, research and development investments, acquisition expenses, data security measures, operational expenses.
Competitive AdvantageTwitter’s competitive advantage lies in its real-time and open platform, enabling global conversations and quick information dissemination. The platform’s simplicity, character limit, and focus on trending topics create a unique user experience. Twitter’s brand recognition, widespread use by public figures and celebrities, and role in news distribution strengthen its position.Twitter stands out with its real-time, open, and conversational platform that facilitates global engagement. Its simplicity and character limit foster concise communication. The focus on trending topics enhances content discoverability. Twitter’s brand recognition and prominent use by public figures and celebrities reinforce its role in news distribution and real-time updates.Real-time and open platform, global conversations, information dissemination, simplicity, character limit, trending topics, content discoverability, brand recognition, public figure and celebrity usage, news distribution role, real-time updates.

Origin story

Odeo was a directory and search destination website for podcast publishing and aggregation.

It was 2006, and the company felt the pressures of other giants at the time (Apple) competing for the same space. 

Therefore, the founders of Odeo decided it was time to “reboot” the company to move in a new direction.

In 2000, inspired by early blogging pioneer LiveJournal, Jack Dorsey thought about a service in which posts appeared in real-time and “from the road.” 

They broke the company into teams to brainstorm new ideas and determine what to do next.

In a brainstorming session, Jack Dorsey represented his idea to the other team members about “a service that uses SMS to tell small groups what you are doing.”

That idea made sense so much that by March 2006, a first test had started.  

It was March 2006; Jack Dorsey was setting up the idea he had brainstormed, which would initially be called twttr.

As the story goes, Evan Williams, Jack Dorsey, and Biz Stone, who co-founded the company at the time, knew they “wanted to have this instant mobile, SMS, tech-space thing,” and Twitter (which referenced nature, as Twitter is the sound that birds make) was the perfect name they had in mind.

However, a bird enthusiast already had registered the name twitter.com. So they had to initially use twttr.com.

After six months after the project launch, they finally managed to get the domain twitter.com which would stick to these days.

The group could not easily explain the value of this new project to Odeo’s board, as the company was losing ground.

Thus, a new corporation was eventually set up to manage the twttr project.

As the project launched six months in, Jack Dorsey was one of the engineers working on what would be finally rebranded as Twitter.com.

The interesting part is that people could not still get the value of a platform that enabled those SMSs when they still paid for them.

In short, tweeting something at the time meant having the phone billed for messages that conveyed what one was doing.

For how entertaining it might be, it was not convenient.

To make things worse, there was no character limit. Thus, a long message would be split into multiple messages, increasing the phone bill.

So the team figured they needed to change the anatomy of the message. Indeed, to fit into what, at the time, was the character limit for a message (160), the Twitter.com team set the limit at 140 characters, so users had “room for the username and the colon in front of the message.”

From there, the official tweet was born (the character limit would be expanded only a decade later from 140 to 280).

Twitter’s team was the main advocate of the platform, and Jack Dorsey would show the power of the tweet as a way to express opinions about the world, is a powerful way:


By 2007 Twitter had gained traction, and Jack Dorsey would become the company’s CEO.

By December 2008, Twitter grew quickly, reaching 4.43 million unique visitors (a 752% growth over the previous year).

While Twitter was snowballing, its platform wasn’t stable, and Jack Dorsey wasn’t considered able to stay in the CEO’s position.

And by 2008, Dorsey had to leave the CEO position (kicked out from Twitter in 2009, Dorsey founded Square).

Nonetheless, Twitter kept growing in 2009. That was also the year when Facebook passed Myspace in traffic.

By 2009, Twitter’s popularity grew, so celebrities like Ashton Kutcher, Britney Spears, Ellen DeGeneres, Barack Obama, and Oprah Winfrey joined the platform.

By the end of 2010, the platform had more than 160 million users and started monetizing through ads.

This model would stick, even though Twitter would become profitable only by 2017-18.

In 2015 Jack Dorsey returned as Twitter’s CEO, splitting his time between Twitter and Square.

Elon musk is Twitter’s owner

After an epic battle that might stay forever in the business history books, Elon Musk entered Twitter’s HQ to make things even more interesting, saying, “let that sink in!”

In short, Musk confirmed himself as the meme king of the platform. While this might seem all a joke, it’s, in reality, the acquisition of one of the largest media platforms in the US.

As Musk took over, he had the main executive team resign immediately.

What’s going to happen next?

Twitter will be delisted (it won’t be a public company anymore) as Musk, and his new executive team will come in and try to restructure the company.

Thus, either opening up the change to list it again in the coming years or keep it as a private company, outside the influence of quarter-to-quarter financials.

How was Twitter ownership organized before Musk bought it?

The largest individual shareholder is Elon Musk, followed by co-founder and former CEO Jack Dorsey. Other non-individual, institutional shareholders comprise The Vanguard Group (with 10.7%), BlackRock (with 6.8%), and Morgan Stanley (with 87%).


The timeline of Elon Musk’s acquisition of Twitter

In April 2022, Elon Musk tried to acquire Twitter in one of the most controversial deals in business history.

Let’s review the timeline.

Musk placed a bet to take over the whole company out of the blue. It was April 14th, 2022:


The public records show the whole conversation of the offer Musk made to take over Twitter.

Below is the main extract, of the conversation, between Musk and Twitter’s board.

As per SEC Filings, Musk had sent a message to Bret Taylor, Chairman of Twitter’s board:

I invested in Twitter as I believe in its potential to be the platform for free speech around the globe, and I believe free speech is a societal imperative for a functioning democracy.  

However, since making my investment I now realize the company will neither thrive nor serve this societal imperative in its current form. Twitter needs to be transformed as a private company.

As a result, I am offering to buy 100% of Twitter for $54.20 per share in cash, a 54% premium over the day before I began investing in Twitter and a 38% premium over the day before my investment was publicly announced. My offer is my best and final offer and if it is not accepted, I would need to reconsider my position as a shareholder.

Twitter has extraordinary potential.  I will unlock it.

Elon Musk

In a follow-up text, Musk highlighted:

As I indicated this weekend, I believe that the company should be private to go through the changes that need to be made.

After the past several days of thinking this over, I have decided I want to acquire the company and take it private.

I am going to send you an offer letter tonight, it will be public in the morning.

Are you available to chat?

Elon Musk

As a final message to Twitter’s board, Musk highlighted:

1. Best and final

a. I’m not playing the back-and-forth game.

b. I have moved straight to the end.

c. It’s a high price and your shareholders will love it.

d. If the deal doesn’t work, given that I don’t have confidence in management nor do I believe I can drive the necessary change in the public market, I would need to reconsider my position as a shareholder.

i. This is not a threat, it’s simply not a good investment without the changes that need to be made.

ii. And those changes won’t happen without taking the company private.

2. My advisors and my team are available after you get the letter to answer any questions

a. There will be more detail in our public filings. After you receive the letter and review the public filings, your team can call my family office with any questions.

Elon Musk

In short, Musk had offered to purchase Twitter for $54.20 per share, a 54% premium, before Musk had started to buy Twitter shares.

While the offer was good from a valuation standpoint, the board tried to fight it. Also influential business commentators were against it.

As Cramer highlighted:

This is one of those where they are literally not doing their job, there’s no fiduciary responsibility if they just say, ‘you know what, we take it, there are times when individual directors are opened up for a level of lack of fiduciary that I think crosses the line. This crosses the line.

Throughout the deal, none expected it to go through so quickly.

Indeed, given the controversy around Twitter, most business people thought this would have turned into a few months’ fight over Twitter’s ownership.

Yet, things tumbled very quickly. And by April 25th, 2022, the deal was officially announced!

The announcement of Twitter’s board accepting the offer from Elon Musk to buy the company.

As explained in the official press release:

Under the terms of the agreement, Twitter stockholders will receive $54.20 in cash for each share of Twitter common stock that they own upon closing of the proposed transaction. The purchase price represents a 38% premium to Twitter’s closing stock price on April 1, 2022, which was the last trading day before Mr. Musk disclosed his approximately 9% stake in Twitter.

Bret Taylor, Twitter’s Independent Board Chair, highlighted:

 The Twitter Board conducted a thoughtful and comprehensive process to assess Elon’s proposal with a deliberate focus on value, certainty, and financing. The proposed transaction will deliver a substantial cash premium, and we believe it is the best path forward for Twitter’s stockholders.

Parag Agrawal, Twitter’s CEO, highlighted on Twitter

Twitter has a purpose and relevance that impacts the entire world. Deeply proud of our teams and inspired by the work that has never been more important.

How did Elon Musk secure the funding to purchase the company?

He secured $25.5 billion of fully committed debt and margin loan financing and is providing an approximately $21.0 billion equity commitment.

After one of our most epic business battles, the deal closed by October 26-27 as Musk entered Twitter’s HQ to meet the team.

Wanter Isaacson, working on a biography of Musk, thus following him as he talks to Twitter’s team for the first time, shows a group of people listening to Musk.

As Musk takes ownership of Twitter, he sends over a public letter to advertisers:

Source: Elon Musk, Twitter

A Glance at Twitter Business Model

Twitter Business Model

Twitter makes money in two ways: advertising and data licensing. In 2021, Twitter generated $4.5 billion from advertising and $570 million from data licensing. While Twitter generated $5 billion in total revenues, it lost 221 million.

Advertising Industry

The digital advertising industry has become a multi-billion industry dominated by a few key tech players. The industry’s advertising dollars are also fragmented across several small players and publishers across the web. Most of it is consolidated within brands like Google, YouTube, Facebook, Instagram, Amazon, Bing, Twitter, TikTok, which is proliferating, and Pinterest.

Roblox Business Model

Roblox is an online gaming platform where users can create avatars and explore various gaming experiences. Each experience will be monetized based on how its developer has structured the game. For instance, free games allow users to spend the platform’s currency, called Robux, to get specific enhancements or purchase items like clothing accessories for the avatars, simulated gestures from the Roblox Avatar Marketplace. Therefore, Roblox makes money by earning a commission on each transaction and through its internal ad network.

Facebook Business Model

Facebook is an attention-based business model. As such, its algorithms condense the attention of over 2.4 billion users as of June 2019. Facebook advertising revenues accounted for $31.9 billion or 98.66% of its total revenues. Facebook Inc. has a product portfolio made of Instagram, Messenger, WhatsApp, and Oculus.

Instagram Business Model

Instagram makes money via visual advertising. Acquired by Facebook for a billion-dollar in 2012, today, Instagram is integrated into the overall Facebook (now rebranded as Meta) business strategy. In 2018, Instagram founders Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger left the company as Facebook pushed toward tighter integration of the two platforms. In 2022, Instagram is the most successful product still, in Meta’s portfolio.

Snapchat Business Model

Snapchat is a camera company which business model moves across three industries: social media, content marketing, and AR. Snapchat generates most of its revenue from several ad formats (AR Ads, Snap Ads, Sponsored Geolifters, and Sponsored Lenses). The company also produces Spectacles, a set of AR glasses enabling content creators to produce interactive experiences through Snapchat. 

Discord Business Model

Discord makes money in several ways. From its Discord Store, where users can buy premium games, to the seller shops, that primarily works with a 90/10 revenue share for developers and game sellers. And the ability for sellers to get more visibility on the platform by adding features to the game visibility.

WhatsApp Business Model

Founded in 2009 by Brian Acton, Jan Koum WhatsApp is a messaging app acquired by Facebook in 2014 for $19B. In 2018 WhatsApp rolled out customers’ interaction services, starting to make money on slow responses from companies. And Facebook also announced conversations on WhatsApp prompted by Facebook Ads.

Pinterest Business Model

Pinterest makes money by selling advertising for marketers and companies that can gain visibility for their brands and more sales for their shops. In 2018, Pinterest made over $755 million in advertising revenue and it had 250 million monthly active users.

TikTok Business Model

TikTok makes money through advertising. It is estimated that ByteDance, its owner, made $51 billion in 2021 in revenues. TikTok instead generated $11 billion in advertising in 2022, 3.3 billion downloads, and 1.2 billion monthly active users in 2021. TikTok, therefore, is a multi-billion company worth anywhere between $100 and-150 billion and among the most valuable social media platforms on earth.

Telegram Business Model

Telegram is a messaging app emphasizing privacy and encryption, launched in 2013. It doesn’t make money yet, while it raised over $1.7 billion in Initial Coin Offerings throughout 2018, halted by the SEC in 2019. Telegram wants to keep the app 100% free while trying to sustain its growth.

Reddit Business Model

Reddit is a social news and discussion website that also rates web content. The platform was created in 2005 after founders Alexis Ohanian and Steve Huffman met venture capitalist Paul Graham and pitched the company as the “front page of the internet.” Reddit makes money primarily via advertising. It also offers premium membership plans.

Read Also: Twitter Business Model, Digital Business Models, Platform Business Models, Attention-Based Business Models.

Related Tech Ownership Case Studies

Who Owns OpenAI

OpenAI is an artificial intelligence research laboratory that transitioned into a for-profit organization in 2019, which comprised an entity called OpenAI LP and the non-profit parent foundation OpenAI. The lab, which was founded in 2015 by Elon Musk, Sam Altman, and various others, has a core focus on the development of friendly AI that benefits society as a whole. Yet now has primarily evolved as a capped-for-profit entity with an exclusive commercial license to Microsoft.

Who Owns Airbnb

Its co-founders primarily own Airbnb: Brian Chesky, with 76,407,686 Class B shares, which gives him 29.1% of ownership; Nathan Blecharczyk, with 232,306 Class A and 64,646,713 Class B, which give him 25.3%; and Joe Gebbia, which has 5,113,865 Class A and 58,023,452 Class B, which give him 22.9% ownership.

Who Owns Google

Google is primarily owned by its founders, Larry Page and Sergey Brin, who have more than 51% voting power. Other individual shareholders comprise John Doerr (1.5%), a venture capitalist and early investor in Google, and CEO, Sundar Pichai. Former Google CEO Eric Schmidt has 4.2% voting power. The most prominent institutional shareholders are mutual funds BlackRock and The Vanguard Group, with 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively.

Who Owns Facebook

Mark Zuckerberg is the largest shareholder in the company. Zuckerberg retains ownership and control of the company. Like Google, Facebook has issued two common stocks, Class A and Class B. The holders of Class B common stocks are entitled to ten votes per share, and holders of our Class A common stocks are entitled to one vote per share. Mark Zuckerberg has a voting power of 56.9%; he’s the primary decision-maker. Other individual investors comprise Sheryl Sandberg, Christopher Cox, Marc Andreessen, Peter Thiel, Dustin Moskovitz, and Eduardo Saverin.

Who Owns Apple

As of 2023, major Apple shareholders comprised Warren Buffet’s Berkshire Hathaway with 5.73% of the company’s stock (valued at over $130 billion). Followed by other individual shareholders like Tim Cook, CEO of Apple, with about 3.3 million shares, Artur Levinson, chairman of Apple, with over 4.5 million shares, and others.

Who Owns Amazon

With 64,588,418 shares, Jeff Bezos is the major individual investor. Owning 12.7% of the company. Other top individual investors comprise Amazon’s CEO Andy Jessy, with 94,729 shares. Top institutional investors include mutual funds like The Vanguard Group (6.6% ownership) and BlackRock (5.7% ownership). 

Who Owns Microsoft

Major shareholders comprise co-founder Bill Gates, who stepped down from the company’s board in 2020, which is why these shares are no longer publicly reported. In 2019, Gates still owned a stake of 103 million stocks, which accounted for 1.34% of the company’s ownership (worth over $23 billion in January 2023). Other individual shareholders comprise Satya Nadella, the company’s CEO, Brad Smith (former president), Jean-Philippe Courtois (EVP), and Amy Hood (former CFO).

Who Owns Tesla

By 2022, most of Tesla’s shares are still owned by Elon Musk, among the company’s co-founders and the CEO. Elon Musk is the top individual investor, with a 23.5% stake in the company, equivalent to over 244 million shares. Musk is followed by Lawrence Ellison (founder of Oracle), with a 1.5% company stake. Ellison also sits on Tesla’s board. And Antonio Gracias, among the company’s first investors, has over 1.6 million shares. Other institutional investors and mutual funds like The Vanguard Group (6%), Blackrock (5.1%), and Capital Ventures International also have a good chunk of the company’s stocks.

Who Owns PayPal

PayPal was first founded in 1998; it was called Confinity (among its founders was Peter Thiel); later, it merged with X.com, its major competitor, founded by Elon Musk (which would become known for other companies like Tesla and SpaceX). From this merger, PayPal was born. In 2002, PayPal was bought by eBay for $1.5 billion. eBay spun off PayPal in 2015, which would be listed as an independent entity. Today PayPal owns brands like Braintree, Venmo, Xoom, and iZettle.

Who Owns Netflix

Netflix’s largest individual shareholder is Reed Hastings, co-founder, and former CEO of the company, now Chairperson of Netflix, with a 1.7% stake, valued at over $2.4 billion in February 2023. Other significant individual shareholders comprise Jay C. Hoag, the company’s directors since 1999, and Ted Sarandos, former chief content officer and now Chief Executive Officer of Netflix. Major institutional shareholders comprise The Vanguard Group (7.55% ownership), BlackRock (6.58% ownership), and Capital Research Global Investments (5.84% ownership).

Who Owns TikTok

TikTok is owned by ByteDance, a Chinese internet technology company owning several content platforms worldwide (Douyin, Toutiao, Xigua Video, Helo, Lark, Babe). Bytedance passed the $300 billion private market valuation by 2022, making around $58 billion in revenue in 2022, over $4 billion from TikTok.

Who Owns YouTube

Acquired by Google, in 2006, for $1.65 billion, YouTube is now worth many times over. In 2022, YouTube generated over $29 billion in revenue from advertising alone. YouTube is part of Google (now named Alphabet), and as such, it is owned by main Google’s Alphabet shareholders and is one of the fastest-growing segments for the company.

Who Owns Twitter

As of April 25th, 2022, Elon Musk tried to take over Twitter. Musk tried to purchase the company at $54.20 per share, or about $44 billion. The deal finally closed by October 27th, 2022, and Elon Musk became the largest shareholder.

Who Owns Spotify

The multi-billion music streaming company Spotify is primarily owned by its founders, Daniel Ek and Martin Lorentzon. As of 2023, Daniel Ek has 16.5% ownership of ordinary shares and 31.7% of the voting power. Martin Lorentzon has 10.9% of ordinary shares and 42.6% of the voting power. Another key shareholder is Baillie Gifford & Co, a Scottish-based money management firm, followed by Morgan Stanley, T. Rowe Price, and Tencent.

Who Owns Nvidia

The top individual shareholder of NVIDIA is Jen-Hsun Huang, founder, and CEO of the company, with 87,521,722 shares giving him 3.50% ownership. Followed by Mark A. Stevens, venture capitalist and a partner at S-Cubed Capital, who was part of the NVIDIA board in 2008 and previously served as a director from 1993 to 2006, with 6,258,803 shares. Institutional investors comprise The Vanguard Group, Inc, with 196,015,550, owning 7.83%. BlackRock, Inc., with 177,858,484, owns 7.10%. And FMR LLC (Fidelity Institutional Asset Management) with 158,039,922, owning 6.31%.

Who Owns Uber

Uber’s principal individual shareholders comprise Yasir Al-Rumayyan (3.73%), the Governor of the Public Investment Fund, the sovereign wealth fund of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and Dara Khosrowshahi, the founder and CEO of Uber. There is Morgan Stanley, with 5.12% ownership among the top institutional investors.

Who Owns Shopify

The founder and CEO of Shopify, Tobias Lütke, owned or controlled 7,891,852 Class B multiple voting shares and 5,250 Class A subordinate voting shares, representing approximately 33.8% of the aggregate voting power attached to all of the Company’s outstanding voting shares. Another key stakeholder is John H. Phillips, an angel investor who placed an early bet on Shopify.

Who Owns Roblox

Roblox is owned by David Baszucki and Gregory Baszucki, with a 2.3% and 2.6% stake, respectively. Anthony lee, managing partner at Altos Ventures, with a 15.3% stake.

Who Owns Twitch

In 2014, Twitch was bought by Amazon for $970 million. Therefore Twitch is part of Amazon, comprising other subsidiaries bought over the years, like Audible, Whole Foods, and Zappos (in total, Amazon has 12 subsidiaries). Therefore, as of 2020, Twitch is a multi-billion dollar company, making money primarily via advertising through its video streaming platform (creators use Twitch today across many other verticals).

Who Owns Zoom

Zoom’s principal private shareholders comprise Eric S. Yuan, a Chinese-American billionaire businessman that founded Zoom. Dan Scheinman, board member and angel investor in Zoom since the start, and Santiago Subotovsky, also an early investor in Zoom. Zoom follows a freeterprise business model where free accounts are channeled into enterprise customers.

Who Owns Activision

In one of the largest deals in the business world, Microsoft acquired Activision Blizzard in a $68.7 billion transaction. Making Microsoft the world’s third-largest gaming company by revenue, behind Tencent and Sony. However, given the size of the deal, this is still under the scrutiny of regulators who need to approve it. If the deal goes through, Microsoft will become among the largest gaming companies in the world.

Who Owns Pixar

Pixar is owned by The Walt Disney Company, which acquired it in 2006 in a $7.4 billion deal. Today Pixar is part of the Disney Empire. The principal shareholders of Disney comprise Robert Iger, CEO of the company, and institutional investors like The Vanguard Group and Blackrock.

Who Owns Salesforce

Marc Benioff, Co-CEO of Salesforce, is the primary individual shareholder, with 3% of the company’s stock. Other main individual shareholders comprise Parker Harris, Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer, and Bret Taylor, former co-CEO. Major institutional shareholders include The Vanguard Group, Fidelity, and BlackRock.

Who Owns Slack

In a $27.7 billion deal in 2021, Salesforce’s finalized the acquisition of Slack, which was integrated into Salesforce. Today Slack is still a product mostly independently managed by Salesforce, which incorporated some of its features within its platform. Entrepreneur Marc Benioff primarily owns salesforce.

Who Owns Snapchat

Evan Spiegel and Robert Cornelius Murphy are the co-founders and, respectively, CEO and CTO of Snapchat. Evan Spiegel owns 3% of Class A stocks, 25.7% of Class B stocks, and 53.4% of Class C stocks for a 53.2% voting power, whereas Robert Murphy owns 6% of Class A stocks, 25.7% of Class B stocks, and 46.6% of Class C stocks for a 46.6% voting power. Snapchat runs an advertising-based business model.

Who Owns Coinbase

Main individual shareholders comprise co-founders Brian Armstrong (59.5% voting power), Frederick Ernest Ehrsam (26.1% voting power), and other individual investors such as Surojit Chatterjee (current CPO “poached” from Google), Paul Grewal (former magistrate who joined Coinbase as Chief Legal Officer), and venture capitalists who early on invested on Coinbase, like Marc Andreessen (founder of a16z) and Fred Wilson (founder of Union Square Ventures), together with venture capital firms like Andreessen Horowitz, Paradigm, Ribbit Capital and Union Square Ventures.

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