A distribution channel is the set of steps it takes for a product to get in the hands of the key customer or consumer. Distribution channels can be direct or indirect. Distribution can also be physical or digital, depending on the kind of business and industry.
Distribution Types Database
|Amazon Business Model||Hybrid (direct to consumers + digital marketing growth strategy)||In the case of Amazon, the company is among the most robust tech brands today, and it follows a hybrid strategy, where hundreds of millions of users go straight to the Amazon brand through its website and apps. On the other hand, Amazon also relies on digital distribution to enhance its visibility. For instance, Google search is also a great contributor to traffic for Amazon and many other digital channels.|
|Apple Business Model||Hybrid (direct to consumers + subsidized by mobile carriers)||Apple relies both on its stores and on third-party carriers who enhance the distribution of Apple devices across the world. For instance, when it comes to the iPhone, for example, in 2021, Apple’s net sales through its direct and indirect distribution channels accounted for 36% and 64%. The direct channel (Apple’s owned stores) it’s critical to guarantee brand awareness, control over the distribution, customer support & service provisioning. The indirect channel is essential to enhancing the sales of expensive devices like the iPhone. For instance, a good chunk of iPhone sales is subsidized by phone carriers players, who amortize the cost of the phone into the plan, thus enabling more people to afford an expensive smartphone, like the iPhone.|
|Facebook (Meta) Business Model||Direct to consumer (Digital)||Facebook is a tech player that primarily relies on direct digital distribution. In fact, over the years, the company has managed to first keep a strong brand for its main product (Facebook). After that, Facebook acquired Instagram, WhatsApp, and Oculus. These powerful brands enabled Facebook to get a direct relationship with users. However, it’s worth highlighting that Facebook (Meta) does not own the platform through which users get to the brand (the Apple Store and Google Play). Users can download and experience the brand’s products are owned by Apple and Google, respectively). Thus, its ability to distribute the product is highly reliant on the ability of the company to keep its brand strong.|
|Google (Alphabet) Business Model||Digital Vertical Integration||Google (now called Alphabet) is a great example of digital vertical integration. The company follows each step of the data supply chain, from data harvesting to data repackaging and its exchange within Google’s proprietary advertising marketplaces. On the desktop side, Google owns the Chrome browser, the Google search engine, and the advertising platforms (AdSense, Google Ads, and YouTube Ads) to monetize the data. On the mobile side, Google owns the Android operating system, the Google Play Store, and the Google AdMob advertising platform. In this segment, Google also produced smartphone devices, and it’s now revamping its AR glass business segment.|
|Luxottica Business Model||Phisical Vertical Integration||Luxottica is an excellent example of physical vertical integration and complete control over its distribution strategy. The company not only manufactures most eyeglasses frames and lenses but also distributes them across its owned stores and its wholesale distribution.|
|Tesla Business Model||Direct to consumer (Physical)||Tesla sells its cars directly from its online stores, distributing them directly to customers. The company also owns Tesla physical stores worldwide, where customers can buy cars directly from them. The company has been spending a substantial effort in building its own stores to bypass classic car distributors, which has been a rule of thumb for a long time.|
Why a distribution channel strategy matters
Often companies undervalue distribution channels as they think that a good product or service will automatically create its distribution.
While this might happen, it is more of a utopia than a reality.
Distribution needs to be created, at times with sheer force combined with strategic planning and a deep understanding of customers’ needs or desire generation.
A traditional distribution strategy looks at the classic 4 Ps (product, promotion, price, and placement).
Those are the key ingredients to growing the revenues of a business, quickly and sustainably. Thus, a distribution strategy starts from:
- Understanding the wants of their customers.
- Leveraging insights to create a better purchasing experience.
- Developing new products and services that customers will want to buy.
- Creating go-to-market strategies that reach the proper customer target.
- Generating demand for a set of products and services offered.
Without an appropriate strategy for distribution, it is hard to have a successful and sustainable business model.
Types of distribution channels
At a higher level, distribution channels can be broken down into direct channels and indirect channels.
This primarily depends on how long is the chain between who makes the product and the final consumer.
The number of steps it takes will make the distribution channel direct or indirect.
Let’s visualize a distribution chain to understand the difference between direct and indirect strategy:
Where in a direct distribution strategy a producer can access the consumer, in an indirect distribution strategy, the producer will meet its consumer demands via third-parties wholesalers or retailers.
Thus, a direct approach makes the value chain shorter and at the same time allows more control by the producer on how the final customer experiences the product or service offered.
At the same time, a direct-to-consumer strategy is quite expensive and not always effective enough to allow proper distribution.
Therefore, companies often use a mixture of direct and indirect distribution strategies, which determine their marketing mix.
Between the direct-to-consumer and entirely indirect distribution strategy (where the producer sells to a wholesaler), there are several indirect variations based on how many steps it takes to reach the final consumer and how long is the value chain.
For instance, in the scenarios in which a producer sells to a wholesaler, the wholesaler sells to retailers, who reach the final consumers.
However, in some other cases, the distribution channels might be shorter.
Think of the Costco business model, where the company purchases a selected variety of goods in bulk from producers.
Yet instead of reselling that to retailers, Costco itself acts as a retailer by leveraging its membership-based business model and selling those items in bulk quantity directly to consumers, who appreciate the convenience of its prices together with the selection of high-quality products.
Case study: Apple’s direct and indirect distribution mix
In other cases yet, the distribution channels strategy might be even shorter. Take the example of the Apple business model, where the company sells part of its products via its retail stores.
That creates a unique experience for Apple‘s consumers and makes the value chain shorter but it also leverages an indirect strategy to make those same products (usually quite expensive) more accessible to mass consumers.
Related: Successful Types of Business Models You Need to Know
Distribution channel vs. supply chain
It is easy to confuse and mix up the definition of distribution channels with the supply chain even though the distribution channels and strategies might sometimes cross with the supply chain.
The distribution strategy concerns primarily with bringing the product in front of customers, especially customers that are willing and ready to buy it.
Therefore, in some cases, bringing a product in front of the right people might be a matter for the supply chain.
For instance, in the Luxottica business model, vertical integration means the ability to control the full customer experience and to choose also the location of the retail stores.
Thus, this is a case in which supply chain management also becomes a distribution strategy. That is why, other players, in the same space, try to enter by using, initially, an opposite strategy.
That of owning only part of the supply chain.
It is critical to maintain a clear difference between supply chain and distribution channel strategy.
While the supply chain comprises all the planning, manufacturing, and logistics activities that make the product go from the purchase of raw materials to transformation into a final product that might get delivered to the final customer (Zara business model leverages supply chain management as a distribution strategy).
In short, where supply chain management concerns itself with integrating supply and demand, a distribution strategy involves itself primarily in the demand chain.
To have a deep understanding of the difference between the supply chain and distribution strategy it is important to consider three main aspects.
Case study: Tesla and Google, from physical to digital integration
Supply chain vs. demand chain
Where a supply chain seeks efficiencies that can, for instance, reduce the cost of purchasing raw materials, integrate several parts of the supply chain, or at creating better logistics.
Distribution channels and strategies look more at creating demand for a product or service by leveraging several strategies.
For instance, having insight into potential customers can allow a company to generate demand via distribution and marketing, just like in the Nike business model.
Internal vs. external
A supply chain relates to all the aspects that begin with sourcing raw materials, production processes, inventory management, and all the other processes that bring a product or service in front of the final customer.
On the other hand, a distribution strategy primarily concerns the demand chain. Therefore, the difference is primarily internal vs. external.
The supply chain affects costs and how to reduce them via efficiencies.
Distribution channels and strategies look at how to grow the demand. Thus, increasing revenues for the business.
This distinction is not absolute. As in some cases when a core competence of a company is its supply chain management, then that also becomes a distribution strategy, just like in the Amazon business model case study.
Via efficient inventory management, Amazon can keep large facilities where most tasks are automated.
This allows Amazon to host third-party inventories of sellers that are part of the Amazon network.
That in turn, makes Amazon stores more interesting for final customers as they can find more products they need, they can get them faster, and purchase them in a bundle.
In this case, the Amazon supply chain strategy in part crosses with its distribution strategy.
Process-centric vs. customer-centric
Where the supply chain is often process-centric.
In short, it wants to improve efficiency, reduce steps among several parts of the chain, and make the process as smooth as possible. Distribution channels and strategies focus on the customer.
Where is the customer? How do we get more of them? Is that a matter of price? Value or product?
A distribution strategy is obsessed with customers.
Once again, this is a rough distinction as, in some cases, companies have a customer-centric approach at any company level.
That’s what Jeff Bezos means when he says that successful companies need to stay in “Day One.“
Why you need to understand the demand chain
Demand chain management is a complex endeavor that involves the relations among suppliers and customers and how those interested in growing the demand for the product or service.
At the core, it is about designing a business model that allows the organization to meet customer needs and create desire and demand with an existing supply chain.
Thus, the demand chain is the value chain from your customers’ perspective.
This implies synergies between the supply chain and distribution and marketing to design a business model that delivers the most suited value proposition and generates higher revenues for the business.
It is almost like demand chain management allows supply chain management to look outside the company’s boundaries and understand the market.
Therefore, demand management will primarily understand, generate, and stimulate customer demand and align the supply chain processes with that.
A proper distribution strategy focuses on understanding the supply and value chain to design a sustainable business model, where, for instance:
- The company has to guarantee enough margins and the proper condition to third-parties distributors to allow them to run sustainable operations.
- Align the incentives between the company, the distributors, and consumers.
- Train and educate distributors so that they can offer the best customer experience.
- Create alignment between distributors to avoid fragmented pricing, placement, and promotion strategy.
- Understand what products or services might allow the organization to grow its reach.
B2B, B2C, and distribution channels
A distribution strategy and therefore, the distribution channels involved will change based on the target customer.
Indeed, selling to a business clientele is not the same thing as selling to consumers.
This implies different capabilities and distribution strategies.
For instance, a B2B (business-to-business) distribution strategy might be shorter, as you can directly reach the businesses that will act as intermediaries between you and the final consumer.
Think of the case of a company selling software as a service (so-called SaaS). If that software is complex and requires a certain degree of expertise, it will be better suited to be sold via other agencies and third parties, which in turn will have access to the consumer business.
This will imply a distribution strategy focused on acquiring the proper sales force to manage the more complex clients.
On the other hand, if a company sells an app for the iPhone which doesn’t require any particular expertise from the final user.
The company will have direct access to its consumers and will use marketing channels which don’t necessarily require a complex salesforce.
This is a critical difference between marketing and sales.
B2B2C distribution strategy
Another form of distribution strategy is a B2B2C, where a brand can leverage existing pipelines to access the market.
In this case, the B2B2C strategy to work has to enable the brand to be known by a larger customer base or audience while it leverages existing players with an established distribution platform.
That is how you can structure your company’s strategy around a B2B2C business model.
Traditional distribution channels vs. digital distribution channels
Over time, to build a sustainable digital strategy, you need to move from third-party to owned distribution, as explained below:
As consumer behaviors had swiftly changed in the last decades, more and more people purchase via the internet, and they feel more and more comfortable buying expensive items on the web.
For instance, Tesla allows you to order a $65K car directly on its site.
Therefore, digital distribution strategies are critical for any business, also one that has always operated offline.
As explained by Gabriel Weinberg, CEO, and founder of DuckDuckGo, there are at least 19 distribution channels between online and off-line:
- Targeting Blogs
- Unconventional PR
- Search Engine Marketing
- Social and Display Ads
- Offline Ads
- Search Engine Optimization
- Content Marketing
- Email Marketing
- Viral Marketing
- Engineering as Marketing
- Business Development
- Affiliate Programs
- Existing Platforms
- Trade Shows
- Offline Events
- Speaking Engagements
- Community Building
Each of those channels can be a critical ingredient to enhance the revenues of a business.
What matters is to experiment, according to the Bullseye Framework:
Related: Growth Marketing Strategies For Your Online Business
Distribution management: marketing or sales?
Understanding whether distribution management is a matter of sales or marketing is superfluous as it might make us switch the focus from what’s important.
However, it makes sense to draw some lines as this allows proper attribution of responsibility and accountability across the departments of an organization.
Thus, distribution management is typically seen as a marketing function. Yet, once again it depends on the kind of organization you’re running.
Imagine the case of a company that sells to wholesalers or retailers; this means most of the contracts might be managed by salespeople, as they require an understanding of deal terms, relationships, and partnerships in place.
In that case, your salesforce will be able to give you insights that can help you improve the distribution strategy.
In the opposite scenario, where the company sells a product directly to consumers, most of the processes might be automated. Thus, most of the insights will be in the hands of the marketing department.
How do you assess the right mix for your distribution strategy?
When building up a distribution strategy, it’s important to balance speed and control.
And to leverage those channels that can give momentum to the business.
Yet also, in the long-term prioritize those channels that make the company viable and its business model solid.
Key takeaways and why distribution is your most important asset
At any time, businesses can leverage open and closed strategies to enhance and create ecosystems that enable the business to thrive.
In short, companies like Google, Amazon, GitHub, Uber, Airbnb, Twitter, Facebook, LinkedIn and many others that we discussed in this blog while growing managed to create parallel ecosystems of developers, publishers, small businesses, entrepreneurs, and users that are really the base and foundation for those companies business model success.
In short, the turnover those companies make is just the tip of the iceberg of an ecosystem, which is often hard to control.
The Internet, enabled ways for these organizations to involve thousands of publishers, developers, and users, where an organization, generating profits, built a strong distribution platform, thus making it compelling to other key players to participate in the growth of the ecosystem.
At the center of those open, and uncontrollable ecosystems, there is a strong distribution network, controlled by the organization in charge of the platform, that is able to monetize the ecosystem.
Thus, the distribution network is, in many cases, among the most valuable assets a company has in the long run.
Even if that’s expensive to develop, a distribution network is always worth it, because that is how you build a business you can control and a platform where you make the rules of the game.
This is the essence of business platforms!
To finish this up, how can you plan an entry strategy based on the distribution context in which we’re operating?
What is distribution
Distribution is a process of enabling a product or service to be easily accessible to the critical customer and consumer who needs that kind of product and service. Usually, distribution channels can be direct or indirect depending on the distribution strategy adopted by an organization to grow its profits.
What is direct distribution?
In a direct distribution model, a company can get its products directly into the hands of consumers without passing through an intermediary. Think of the case of a company like Apple, which sells its iPhones directly through its owned store thus reaching its key customers.
What is indirect distribution?
In an indirect distribution model, a company can get its products into the hands of the final customers, only passing through an intermediary. Think of the case of a company that manufactures a product that then gets sold by a third-party retailer. Thus the company can’t reach its customers directly.
Connected Business Model Types And Frameworks
Attention Merchant Business Model
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