B2B Vs. B2C Business Models In Nutshell

B2B, which stands for business-to-business, is a process for selling products or services to other businesses. On the other hand, a B2C sells directly to its consumers.

AspectB2B Business ModelB2C Business Model
Target AudienceB2B companies sell products or services to other businesses and organizations. Their primary customers are other companies, not individual consumers.B2C companies sell products or services directly to individual consumers, catering to the needs and preferences of everyday people.
Decision-Making ProcessB2B transactions often involve a complex decision-making process, with multiple stakeholders, extensive research, and negotiations.B2C transactions are typically simpler, with consumers making purchase decisions based on personal preferences, needs, and impulse buying.
Customer Base SizeB2B businesses usually have a smaller customer base since they target organizations, which may have fewer potential clients compared to the broader consumer market.B2C companies often have a larger customer base because they target individual consumers, and the consumer market is vast and diverse.
Relationship DurationB2B relationships tend to be long-term and ongoing, as business customers often require continuous support, maintenance, and customized solutions.B2C relationships can vary, but they are generally shorter-term and transactional, as consumers make individual purchases without the need for long-term engagement.
Marketing ApproachB2B marketing focuses on building trust, providing in-depth information, and showcasing the value of products or services. It often involves content marketing, thought leadership, and educational resources.B2C marketing is more emotionally driven, emphasizing brand loyalty, aesthetics, and creating a strong connection with consumers through advertising and promotions.
Pricing StructureB2B pricing tends to be more complex, with negotiated contracts, volume discounts, and customized pricing based on the specific needs and demands of business clients.B2C pricing is often straightforward, with fixed prices, tiered pricing, or dynamic pricing strategies designed to appeal to individual consumers’ price sensitivity.
Sales ProcessB2B sales involve longer sales cycles, with sales teams working closely with clients to understand their unique requirements and offer tailored solutions.B2C sales processes are often shorter, with consumers making relatively quick purchase decisions, especially for low-cost, everyday items.
Customer ServiceB2B companies usually provide dedicated customer support and account management to assist business clients, address their concerns, and ensure ongoing satisfaction.B2C customer service may vary in quality and availability but often includes general customer support channels like email, phone, and live chat for consumer inquiries.
Product ComplexityB2B products and services are often more complex, specialized, and tailored to meet the specific needs of business clients, requiring a deeper understanding of industry nuances.B2C products and services are generally designed to be user-friendly, intuitive, and accessible to a wide range of consumers, with simpler features and functionalities.
Branding and IdentityB2B branding focuses on establishing a professional reputation, industry expertise, and trustworthiness within a specific niche or sector.B2C branding often emphasizes emotional connections, aesthetics, and creating a memorable brand image that resonates with consumers on a personal level.
Sales ChannelsB2B sales often involve a mix of direct sales teams, online platforms, and industry-specific events and conferences.B2C sales channels include brick-and-mortar retail stores, e-commerce websites, social media, online marketplaces, and various advertising channels.
Risk ToleranceB2B customers may have a higher risk tolerance for innovative or unproven solutions if they believe it can benefit their business in the long run.B2C consumers typically have lower risk tolerance and may be hesitant to try new products or services without strong social proof or positive reviews.
Product CustomizationB2B products and services often require a high level of customization to meet the unique needs and specifications of business clients.B2C products are usually standardized and designed for mass consumption, with limited opportunities for individual customization.
Competitive LandscapeB2B markets may have fewer competitors, but they often specialize in specific industries or niches, leading to intense competition within those segments.B2C markets are generally more crowded and competitive, with numerous brands vying for consumer attention and loyalty, leading to frequent price wars and promotions.
Sales FunnelB2B sales funnels are typically narrower, focusing on lead generation, qualification, and nurturing to convert high-value leads into long-term clients.B2C sales funnels tend to be broader, targeting a larger pool of potential consumers and focusing on driving conversion rates and maximizing transactional value.

Introducing the difference between B2B and B2C

While this might seem a trivial distinction instead, that is a fundamental shift in how your business will look like.

From internal processes to product development, sales, distribution, and marketing.

Depending on whether your business is a B2B or B2C might change the physiognomy of your business. Let’s then consider the primary differences in B2B vs. B2C by looking at three key aspects:

  • target customers
  • distribution strategy
  • complex vs. simple sales
  • product development

RelatedWhat Is A B2B2C Business Model? B2B2C Business Model In A Nutshell

B2B vs. B2C: target customers

The first primary difference between B2B and B2C is based on who’s your target customer.

In B2B, you’ll sell directly to another business. While in B2C, you’ll sell directly to consumers.

Keeping this simple distinction in mind is extremely important because you will also need to understand the different purchasing intents of each of those segments.

For instance, if you sell software as a service, and you sell it to another business, the reasons why those businesses, which are your customers are buying from you, are entirely different from the reasons why consumers might buy from you.

This will also fundamentally change your distribution strategy and the way you think about your product.

B2B vs. B2C: distribution strategy

The more you move from consumers to enterprise clients, the more you’ll need a sales force able to manage complex sales. As a rule of thumb, a more expensive product, in B2B or Enterprise, will require an organizational structure around sales. An inexpensive product to be offered to consumers will leverage marketing.

In marketing vs. sales, I dissected how to identify what marketing mix your organization needs.

This distinction can help you also understand what type of distribution strategy is better suited for a B2B rather than a B2C.

Indeed, in the former case, your final customer will be more sophisticated and usually will also require a different kind of support, and assistance, besides needing your service or product in bulk.

This will allow you to sell a product at higher prices and, in some circumstances, at higher margins.

You might also need a complex salesforce to tailor the offering to the specific business clients’ needs.

This means you will thrive with a highly diversified and tailored product that requires more support and assistance from dedicated accounts that follow the client.

Yet it is essential not to confuse simple and complex sales based on how high is the price of the final product.

Another critical element to understanding B2B vs. B2C is the type of transaction involved.

B2B vs. B2C: complex vs. simple sales

Business development comprises a set of strategies and actions to grow a business via a mixture of sales, marketing, and distribution. While marketing usually relies on automation to reach a wider audience, and sales typically leverage a one-to-one approach. The business development’s role is that of generating distribution.

Prada is an Italian luxury brand that sells high-priced products.

As a luxury brand, it sells mostly directly to consumers via its retail stores. However, its products are quite expensive and not affordable for anyone.

This might make you think the sale is complex, yet it’s not – I argue.

Even though Prada spends massive resources (45.8% of its revenues) on selling costs compared to adverting and communication costs.


Source: Prada 2017 Annual Report

My argument is that those selling costs incurred are more as a marketing expense.

When a salesperson deals with a customer to sell her a high-priced bag worth a few thousand dollars, that is still a sale to a consumer (even though a wealthy one).

In this scenario, Prada engages in simple, high-end sales rather than complex sales. Instead, a company like Salesforce primarily runs a SaaS business model that sells to other businesses.

Its primary selling strategy will be based on hiring skilled salespeople to support business clients throughout the process.

For instance, in 2017, Salesforce spent over $3.9 billion in sales and marketing, a good chunk through a direct sales force, which is comprised of:

  • Telephone sales personnel based in Salesforce regional hubs.
  • And field sales personnel based in territories close to the customers.

Sales representatives support the telephone sales and field sales personnel to bring leads across a qualification and closing process.

A complex sale might imply multiple touchpoints, and a sales force able to identify the key contact points to close the deal is a critical resource for B2B business success.

B2B vs. B2C: product development

As B2C sales processes take a completely different turn.

They also imply a different product development schedule. Indeed, in a B2C sale, you can sell the same standardized product or service to most of your customers.

Even though B2C has changed in the era of tech giants like the FAANG, some fundamental truths still differentiate it from B2B product development.

Think, for instance, about how Netflix has changed the way people consume content by offering a personalized and customized list of content to consume.

This also applies to Spotify in the music industry.

In this scenario, most of the resources for those organizations will be spent in two areas: technology and original content.

Those two resources are meant to shape the way the service is provided.

With original content, those B2C companies are pretty competitive. And with a significant investment in technologies, they can deliver a customized experience to millions of people across the world.

Regarding product and service development, Netflix ad Shopify are thinking in terms of “what content millions of consumers around the world would love?”

Welcome to the era of B2All

In an article entitled “The End of B2B and B2C Sales: Why It’s Now B2All” Colleen Francis points out:

Selling used to fall into one of two groups: B2B (business-to-business) and B2C (business-to-consumer). Each had its own set of rules. Selling to businesses took place in a fact-driven, risk-averse environment. Selling to consumers was a much more impulsive, emotionally driven exercise.

Today, B2C is having a major influence on B2B. And vice versa. It’s creating the democratization of the marketplace, or as I like to call it, B2All (business-to-all). Everyone is equal in this new way of selling, whether you’re a business or a customer.

The article opens up a few critical points.

With the digitalization of the business world, keeping a rigid distinction between B2B and B2C has become harder.

Therefore, an organization that can tap into a few key ingredients can both access businesses and consumers. This can happen especially if the organization focuses on three aspects:

Use product development as a marketing tool

When your product has built-in features that allow it to leverage virality and network effect, a B2B can tap into consumers.

We saw that with the freemium business model.

Also, if you’ve focused on improving the product based on customers’ feedback, that will make it successful both as a B2B and B2C.

Indeed, your enterprise client might be the best suited to allow you to create an excellent product quickly.

Make your brand irresistible

If consumers hear about your product and service repeatedly, they will be the first promoters of it.

Thus even if another business might be an intermediary between you and your final consumer, it will be the same consumer suggesting the business provide your service.

Have a multichannel approach

In a digitalized world, it becomes critical to tap into several channels to connect with businesses and consumers.

Leverage a B2B2C approach

A B2B2C is a particular kind of business model where a company, rather than accessing the consumer market directly, it does that via another business. Yet the final consumers will recognize the brand or the service provided by the B2B2C. The company offering the service might gain direct access to consumers over time.

In a B2B2C approach, you can leverage the best of both worlds (B2B and B2C) by using a B2B player to reach potential customers.

Take the case of a partnership where you amplify your brand and product by leveraging a third-party platform.

You do it to amplify your distribution while keeping the focus on building your brand through the B2B player.

As an example, imagine the case of an established e-commerce brand that also leverages Amazon to amplify its reach and demand.

The e-commerce-owned platform will still be where you sell the core products.

However, you might list a portfolio of products worth to give you max amplification.

Thus making your brand known to a plethora of customers that otherwise would not be able to reach you through your e-commerce platform alone.

For instance, imagine a fashion brand selling high-priced bags and making lower-priced accessories.

You list them on Amazon to expand distribution and bring these customers back to buy bags!

In this scenario, you leverage a B2B platform (Amazon e-commerce) to reach a wider audience of consumers while making your brand known with a product (accessories) thought to enhance distribution without cannibalizing the core product.

B2B (Business-to-Business) vs. B2C (Business-to-Consumer) Business Models:

Target Customers:

  • B2B: In a B2B business model, the target customers are other businesses. The focus is on selling products or services to businesses to meet their specific needs or to help them in their operations.
  • B2C: In a B2C business model, the target customers are individual consumers. The focus is on selling products or services directly to end-users for personal consumption or use.

Distribution Strategy:

  • B2B: B2B businesses often use a more personalized and relationship-based distribution strategy. They may have a dedicated sales team that works closely with business clients to understand their requirements and offer customized solutions.
  • B2C: B2C businesses often use mass marketing and broader distribution channels to reach a larger consumer base. They may use advertising, social media, e-commerce platforms, and retail outlets to connect with individual consumers.

Complex vs. Simple Sales:

  • B2B: B2B sales are generally more complex and involve longer sales cycles. Businesses may require detailed proposals, negotiations, and contracts. The decision-making process involves multiple stakeholders and may require building long-term relationships.
  • B2C: B2C sales are typically simpler and involve shorter sales cycles. Consumers make individual purchasing decisions based on personal preferences, emotions, and immediate needs. The focus is on creating a compelling brand image and providing a positive buying experience.

Product Development:

  • B2B: B2B product development often involves customization and meeting specific business requirements. The products or services are designed to cater to the unique needs of business clients and may require ongoing support and maintenance.
  • B2C: B2C product development often focuses on mass production and standardization. Products or services are designed to appeal to a broad consumer base and may prioritize ease of use, aesthetics, and affordability.

Marketing and Branding:

  • B2B: B2B marketing tends to be more relationship-oriented and may involve networking, industry events, and referrals. Branding focuses on building trust, credibility, and expertise in the industry.
  • B2C: B2C marketing is more consumer-focused, emphasizing emotional appeals, storytelling, and creating a memorable brand image. The goal is to capture the attention and loyalty of individual consumers.

Decision-making Process:

  • B2B: B2B purchasing decisions are often based on rational factors such as cost, efficiency, and long-term benefits. Businesses may conduct extensive research and consider multiple options before making a decision.
  • B2C: B2C purchasing decisions are often influenced by emotions, brand perception, and immediate needs. Consumers may make impulse purchases or be influenced by advertising and peer recommendations.

Additional Case Studies

B2B (Business-to-Business) Examples:

  • Cisco Systems: They provide networking hardware and software solutions primarily to other businesses.
  • Slack: While individuals can use Slack for personal reasons, it’s primarily a collaboration tool for teams and businesses.
  • Adobe’s Creative Cloud for Enterprises: Adobe offers special enterprise-level packages of its Creative Cloud software suite tailored for business needs.
  • Dropbox Business: While Dropbox offers personal cloud storage solutions, its business variant provides enhanced storage and collaboration tools for companies.
  • Mailchimp: Primarily used by businesses for email marketing campaigns and automations.
  • LinkedIn’s Marketing Solutions: LinkedIn offers advertisement and marketing solutions specifically targeting professionals and other businesses.
  • Boeing: They primarily sell airplanes to airlines and governments, not to individual consumers.

B2C (Business-to-Consumer) Examples:

  • Netflix: Directly provides streaming services to individual subscribers.
  • Coca-Cola: While they do sell to distributors and retailers, their primary focus is on the end consumer who drinks their beverage.
  • Nike: They design and sell footwear, apparel, and equipment directly to consumers, though they also have B2B operations.
  • Apple’s iTunes: While Apple has B2B components, iTunes primarily sells songs and movies to individual consumers.
  • Amazon Prime: The subscription service offers individuals a range of benefits from fast shipping to streaming, although Amazon also has B2B operations.
  • McDonald’s: They primarily serve food directly to individual consumers, though there’s a B2B component in sourcing ingredients and franchise operations.
  • Spotify: Provides music streaming services directly to individual users.

Key Takeaways:

  • The main difference between B2B and B2C business models lies in their target customers, distribution strategies, sales complexity, product development approach, and marketing and branding techniques.
  • B2B businesses focus on selling to other businesses and often involve complex sales processes, while B2C businesses target individual consumers and use simpler sales tactics.
  • Both models have their unique challenges and opportunities, and successful businesses tailor their strategies to cater to the needs and preferences of their respective target markets.

Key Highlights on B2B vs. B2C:

  • Definitions:
    • B2B (Business-to-Business): Companies that sell products or services directly to other businesses.
    • B2C (Business-to-Consumer): Companies that sell products or services directly to individual consumers.
  • Target Customers:
    • B2B: Other businesses with specific needs.
    • B2C: Individual end-users or consumers.
  • Distribution Strategy:
    • B2B: Often personalized, relationship-based, with dedicated sales teams.
    • B2C: Broader, using mass marketing, advertising, e-commerce, and retail outlets.
  • Sales Complexity:
    • B2B: Typically involves longer, more complex sales cycles with detailed proposals and negotiations.
    • B2C: Generally simpler, shorter sales cycles focused on individual preferences.
  • Product Development:
    • B2B: Customized solutions catering to specific business requirements with ongoing support.
    • B2C: Mass-produced, standardized products catering to broad consumer needs.
  • Marketing & Branding:
    • B2B: Focus on trust, credibility, and relationship-building, often through networking and industry events.
    • B2C: Emphasis on emotional appeal, storytelling, and creating a memorable brand experience.
  • Decision-making:
    • B2B: Rational-based decisions emphasizing cost, efficiency, and long-term benefits with multiple stakeholders involved.
    • B2C: Emotion-driven decisions influenced by branding, immediate needs, and peer recommendations.
  • Emerging Trend – B2All: With digital transformation, the distinction between B2B and B2C is blurring, leading to a “B2All” approach where businesses cater to both enterprises and individual consumers.

RelatedWhat Is A B2B2C Business Model?

Connected Business Model Types And Frameworks

What’s A Business Model

An effective business model has to focus on two dimensions: the people dimension and the financial dimension. The people dimension will allow you to build a product or service that is 10X better than existing ones and a solid brand. The financial dimension will help you develop proper distribution channels by identifying the people that are willing to pay for your product or service and make it financially sustainable in the long run.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Level of Digitalization

Digital and tech business models can be classified according to four levels of transformation into digitally-enabled, digitally-enhanced, tech or platform business models, and business platforms/ecosystems.

Digital Business Model

A digital business model might be defined as a model that leverages digital technologies to improve several aspects of an organization. From how the company acquires customers, to what product/service it provides. A digital business model is such when digital technology helps enhance its value proposition.

Tech Business Model

A tech business model is made of four main components: value model (value propositions, mission, vision), technological model (R&D management), distribution model (sales and marketing organizational structure), and financial model (revenue modeling, cost structure, profitability and cash generation/management). Those elements coming together can serve as the basis to build a solid tech business model.

Platform Business Model

A platform business model generates value by enabling interactions between people, groups, and users by leveraging network effects. Platform business models usually comprise two sides: supply and demand. Kicking off the interactions between those two sides is one of the crucial elements for a platform business model success.

AI Business Model


Blockchain Business Model

A Blockchain Business Model is made of four main components: Value Model (Core Philosophy, Core Value and Value Propositions for the key stakeholders), Blockchain Model (Protocol Rules, Network Shape and Applications Layer/Ecosystem), Distribution Model (the key channels amplifying the protocol and its communities), and the Economic Model (the dynamics through which protocol players make money). Those elements coming together can serve as the basis to build and analyze a solid Blockchain Business Model.

Asymmetric Business Models

In an asymmetric business model, the organization doesn’t monetize the user directly, but it leverages the data users provide coupled with technology, thus have a key customer pay to sustain the core asset. For example, Google makes money by leveraging users’ data, combined with its algorithms sold to advertisers for visibility.

Attention Merchant Business Model

In an asymmetric business model, the organization doesn’t monetize the user directly, but it leverages the data users provide coupled with technology, thus having a key customer pay to sustain the core asset. For example, Google makes money by leveraging users’ data, combined with its algorithms sold to advertisers for visibility. This is how attention merchants make monetize their business models.

Open-Core Business Model

While the term has been coined by Andrew Lampitt, open-core is an evolution of open-source. Where a core part of the software/platform is offered for free, while on top of it are built premium features or add-ons, which get monetized by the corporation who developed the software/platform. An example of the GitLab open core model, where the hosted service is free and open, while the software is closed.

Cloud Business Models

Cloud business models are all built on top of cloud computing, a concept that took over around 2006 when former Google’s CEO Eric Schmit mentioned it. Most cloud-based business models can be classified as IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service), or SaaS (Software as a Service). While those models are primarily monetized via subscriptions, they are monetized via pay-as-you-go revenue models and hybrid models (subscriptions + pay-as-you-go).

Open Source Business Model

Open source is licensed and usually developed and maintained by a community of independent developers. While the freemium is developed in-house. Thus the freemium give the company that developed it, full control over its distribution. In an open-source model, the for-profit company has to distribute its premium version per its open-source licensing model.

Freemium Business Model

The freemium – unless the whole organization is aligned around it – is a growth strategy rather than a business model. A free service is provided to a majority of users, while a small percentage of those users convert into paying customers through the sales funnel. Free users will help spread the brand through word of mouth.

Freeterprise Business Model

A freeterprise is a combination of free and enterprise where free professional accounts are driven into the funnel through the free product. As the opportunity is identified the company assigns the free account to a salesperson within the organization (inside sales or fields sales) to convert that into a B2B/enterprise account.

Marketplace Business Models

A marketplace is a platform where buyers and sellers interact and transact. The platform acts as a marketplace that will generate revenues in fees from one or all the parties involved in the transaction. Usually, marketplaces can be classified in several ways, like those selling services vs. products or those connecting buyers and sellers at B2B, B2C, or C2C level. And those marketplaces connecting two core players, or more.

B2B vs B2C Business Model

B2B, which stands for business-to-business, is a process for selling products or services to other businesses. On the other hand, a B2C sells directly to its consumers.

B2B2C Business Model

A B2B2C is a particular kind of business model where a company, rather than accessing the consumer market directly, it does that via another business. Yet the final consumers will recognize the brand or the service provided by the B2B2C. The company offering the service might gain direct access to consumers over time.

D2C Business Model

Direct-to-consumer (D2C) is a business model where companies sell their products directly to the consumer without the assistance of a third-party wholesaler or retailer. In this way, the company can cut through intermediaries and increase its margins. However, to be successful the direct-to-consumers company needs to build its own distribution, which in the short term can be more expensive. Yet in the long-term creates a competitive advantage.

C2C Business Model

The C2C business model describes a market environment where one customer purchases from another on a third-party platform that may also handle the transaction. Under the C2C model, both the seller and the buyer are considered consumers. Customer to customer (C2C) is, therefore, a business model where consumers buy and sell directly between themselves. Consumer-to-consumer has become a prevalent business model especially as the web helped disintermediate various industries.

Retail Business Model

A retail business model follows a direct-to-consumer approach, also called B2C, where the company sells directly to final customers a processed/finished product. This implies a business model that is mostly local-based, it carries higher margins, but also higher costs and distribution risks.

Wholesale Business Model

The wholesale model is a selling model where wholesalers sell their products in bulk to a retailer at a discounted price. The retailer then on-sells the products to consumers at a higher price. In the wholesale model, a wholesaler sells products in bulk to retail outlets for onward sale. Occasionally, the wholesaler sells direct to the consumer, with supermarket giant Costco the most obvious example.

Crowdsourcing Business Model

The term “crowdsourcing” was first coined by Wired Magazine editor Jeff Howe in a 2006 article titled Rise of Crowdsourcing. Though the practice has existed in some form or another for centuries, it rose to prominence when eCommerce, social media, and smartphone culture began to emerge. Crowdsourcing is the act of obtaining knowledge, goods, services, or opinions from a group of people. These people submit information via social media, smartphone apps, or dedicated crowdsourcing platforms.

Franchising Business Model

In a franchained business model (a short-term chain, long-term franchise) model, the company deliberately launched its operations by keeping tight ownership on the main assets, while those are established, thus choosing a chain model. Once operations are running and established, the company divests its ownership and opts instead for a franchising model.

Brokerage Business Model

Businesses employing the brokerage business model make money via brokerage services. This means they are involved with the facilitation, negotiation, or arbitration of a transaction between a buyer and a seller. The brokerage business model involves a business connecting buyers with sellers to collect a commission on the resultant transaction. Therefore, acting as a middleman within a transaction.

Dropshipping Business Model

Dropshipping is a retail business model where the dropshipper externalizes the manufacturing and logistics and focuses only on distribution and customer acquisition. Therefore, the dropshipper collects final customers’ sales orders, sending them over to third-party suppliers, who ship directly to those customers. In this way, through dropshipping, it is possible to run a business without operational costs and logistics management.

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