What Are Dilts’ Logical Levels? The Dilts’ Logical levels In A Nutshell

  • Dilts’ logical levels are a framework for personal development created by organizational psychologist Robert B. Dilts. They help an individual better understand themselves and their environment.
  • Dilts’ logical levels are used in problem-solving, personal development, conflict resolution, leadership, and motivation. 
  • Dilts’ six logical levels are environment, behavior, capabilities, values and beliefs, identity, and vision. As one moves through each level, thoughts become less trivial and more complex or abstract.

Understanding Dilts’ logical levels

Dilts’ logical levels were created by organizational psychologist Robert B. Dilts. Dilts’ logical levels are a framework for personal development.

They help an individual better understand themselves and their environment based on six logical levels: environment, behavior, capabilities, values and beliefs, identity and vision.

The notion of logical levels of learning and change was initially conceived by anthropologist Gregory Bateson and based on logic and mathematics. Bateson identified four basic levels of learning and change, with each level incorporating elements from the level below it and each successive level having a greater degree of impact on an individual or system.

Dilts’ logical levels are an adaptation of the work done by Bateson, describing a hierarchy of process levels within an individual, group, or organization. The function of each logical level is to synthesize, organize, and direct the interactions on the level below it. Importantly, changing something on a higher level means lower levels must also change to support it. Changing something on a lower level, however, does not necessarily impact those above.

Fundamentally speaking, Dilts’ logical levels indicate the different degrees to which an individual thinks, feels, knows, or speaks. Lower levels encompass trivial or concrete thoughts, while higher levels are more complex, abstract, and meaningful.

According to Dilts, one can tell what logical level someone is operating on by the language they use to discuss their situation or problem. Some individuals become stuck on a level and see their problem as unsolvable. However, helping them move to another level gives them a fresh perspective, and the nature of the problem changes.

As a consequence, Dilts’ logical levels are used in problem-solving, personal development, conflict resolution, and motivation. The levels are also particularly useful to those in a position of leadership

Dilts’ six logical levels

With the above in mind, let’s take a look at each of the six levels that are sometimes represented as a pyramid:

  1. Environment – at the base of the pyramid is the environment. Every experience occurs in a temporal and spatial context, so the environmental level contains every external condition likely to affect a person. In the workplace, an employee may use adjectives to describe what their work environment looks like, sounds like, or feels like. From this, they may be able to identify a “vibe” that affects their experience.
  2. Behavior – on the next level up is behavior, encompassing the individual’s actions, words, gestures, movements, breathing, and perceived reactions to others. Collectively, behavior constitutes particular patterns of work, interaction, or communication at the individual and organizational levels.
  3. Capabilities – or how behaviors are generated and directed within the environment. For the individual, capabilities are typically associated with learning, decision-making, and creativity. For the organization, capabilities describe infrastructure supporting communication, innovation, and planning.
  4. Values and beliefs – what are the values and beliefs that underpin each capability? These fundamental traits motivate the person to act based on what they believe to be true based on previous experiences. It’s important to note that people can only utilize existing capabilities if there are corresponding beliefs that allow them to do so. Values and beliefs determine the meaning attributed to an event and are the foundation of company culture.
  5. Identity – the fifth level supports an individual or organizational sense of identity. They give each entity a sense of mission and purpose as small players in a much larger system. Dilts argued values and beliefs were comprised of two complementary aspects: the ego (survival, recognition, ambition) and the soul (purpose, contribution, mission).
  6. Vision – at the top of the pyramid is the level of professional, family, social, philosophical, or religious affiliation and vision. Vision can be thought of as a spiritual force that guides and shapes the life of an individual or business. As a result, it asks some big questions. What is the meaning of life? Why are we here? What is our reason for being? To what cause or greater system is the individual or business devoted?

Case Studies


  • Environment: Teachers assess the classroom environment, including its layout, resources, and atmosphere, which affects students’ learning experiences.
  • Behavior: Teachers observe students’ behaviors in class, such as their level of engagement, participation, and interactions with peers.
  • Capabilities: Based on observed behaviors, teachers identify areas where students may need additional support or skill development, such as improving critical thinking or problem-solving skills.
  • Values and Beliefs: Teachers work on nurturing positive values and beliefs in students, like the importance of education and the value of perseverance.
  • Identity: As students adopt these values and beliefs, they develop a positive academic identity, seeing themselves as capable learners with the potential for growth.
  • Vision: Teachers help students set educational goals and a vision for their future, encouraging them to aspire to higher levels of achievement and personal growth.

Sports Coaching:

  • Environment: Coaches assess the training facilities, equipment, and overall sports environment to create optimal conditions for athletes.
  • Behavior: Coaches observe athletes’ actions during training and competitions, noting areas where performance can be improved.
  • Capabilities: Coaches work on enhancing athletes’ skills and techniques, helping them develop the physical and mental capabilities needed for success.
  • Values and Beliefs: Coaches instill values like discipline, teamwork, and sportsmanship in athletes, shaping their beliefs about what it takes to excel in their sport.
  • Identity: As athletes embrace these values and beliefs, they form a strong athletic identity, viewing themselves as dedicated competitors with the potential to achieve greatness.
  • Vision: Coaches and athletes share a vision of success, setting goals for championships, personal records, and team achievements, which motivates them to work tirelessly toward those objectives.

Therapy and Counseling:

  • Environment: Therapists create a safe and supportive therapeutic environment that encourages clients to open up and explore their thoughts and feelings.
  • Behavior: Therapists observe clients’ behaviors and communication patterns during sessions, looking for signs of emotional distress or underlying issues.
  • Capabilities: Through therapy, clients develop emotional and cognitive capabilities, learning strategies to manage their emotions, thoughts, and behaviors more effectively.
  • Values and Beliefs: Therapists help clients examine and adjust their core values and beliefs, challenging negative thought patterns and fostering self-compassion.
  • Identity: As clients align their values and beliefs with their desired self-identity, they experience personal growth and increased self-esteem.
  • Vision: Therapy often involves helping clients envision a healthier, more fulfilling future and setting goals to work toward that vision.

Conflict Resolution:

  • Environment: Mediators or negotiators create a neutral and comfortable environment for conflicting parties to engage in productive discussions.
  • Behavior: Mediators observe the behaviors of the conflicting parties during negotiations, identifying communication patterns, triggers, and areas of contention.
  • Capabilities: Mediators facilitate the development of conflict resolution skills and strategies, empowering parties to address their differences constructively.
  • Values and Beliefs: Mediators encourage parties to explore their underlying values and beliefs, helping them recognize common ground and shared interests.
  • Identity: Parties can reshape their identities from adversaries to collaborators, fostering a sense of cooperation and collective problem-solving.
  • Vision: Mediators assist conflicting parties in envisioning a resolution that benefits both sides, promoting long-term cooperation and mutual respect.

Business Strategy Development:

  • Environment: Business leaders analyze the external business environment, including market trends, competition, and regulatory changes. They also assess their company’s current market position.
  • Behavior: Leaders observe the behavior of employees, customers, and competitors. They look for patterns in customer preferences, employee productivity, and market responses.
  • Capabilities: To execute their strategy, companies develop the necessary capabilities, such as technology infrastructure, workforce skills, and operational efficiency.
  • Values and Beliefs: Corporate culture plays a critical role. Leaders instill values like innovation, customer-centricity, and ethics to guide the company’s behavior and decision-making.
  • Identity: As employees embrace the company’s values and beliefs, they develop a sense of organizational identity, aligning their personal goals with the company’s mission.
  • Vision: Business leaders set a strategic vision for the company, defining long-term goals and the desired position in the market. This vision motivates employees and guides their efforts.

Change Management:

  • Environment: Companies assess the external factors driving the need for change, such as evolving customer preferences, technological advancements, or market disruptions.
  • Behavior: During change initiatives, leaders observe employee behavior to gauge their reactions to the changes and identify any resistance or challenges.
  • Capabilities: Change management often involves developing new skills and competencies within the workforce to adapt to the changing environment.
  • Values and Beliefs: Leaders work on shifting employees’ values and beliefs to align with the need for change. They emphasize the importance of adaptability and continuous improvement.
  • Identity: Employees may need to transition from their existing roles to new ones, which can impact their identity within the organization. Leaders help them navigate this transition.
  • Vision: The vision for change outlines what the company aims to achieve with the transformation. It inspires employees and provides a clear destination for the change journey.

Leadership Development:

  • Environment: Organizations assess the leadership landscape both internally and externally. They look for potential leaders within the company and consider leadership trends in their industry.
  • Behavior: Leadership development programs focus on observed leadership behaviors and skills. Feedback and assessments help identify areas for improvement.
  • Capabilities: Leaders undergo training and development programs to enhance their leadership capabilities, including communication, decision-making, and conflict resolution skills.
  • Values and Beliefs: Leadership development often includes discussions about leadership values and ethics, shaping leaders’ beliefs about responsible leadership.
  • Identity: As individuals progress in their leadership roles, they develop a strong leadership identity and a sense of responsibility toward their teams and organizations.
  • Vision: Leadership development is forward-looking, with a vision of creating a pool of effective leaders who can drive the organization’s success and growth.

Product Innovation:

  • Environment: Companies analyze the market environment to identify opportunities for product innovation based on customer needs, emerging trends, and competitive gaps.
  • Behavior: Cross-functional product development teams engage in brainstorming, prototyping, and testing to bring innovative products to market.
  • Capabilities: Teams acquire the necessary skills and resources to develop and launch innovative products or services.
  • Values and Beliefs: Innovation requires a culture that values creativity, experimentation, and risk-taking. Leaders foster these values within their teams.
  • Identity: Innovation teams often have a distinct identity within the organization, characterized by their creative and forward-thinking approach.
  • Vision: The vision for innovation outlines the company’s ambition to lead in its market segment through continuous product improvements and breakthrough innovations.

Key Highlights about Dilts’ Logical Levels:

  • Dilts’ Logical Levels: Dilts’ Logical Levels is a framework for personal development created by organizational psychologist Robert B. Dilts. It helps individuals gain insight into themselves and their environment by categorizing six logical levels of thinking and understanding.
  • Logical Levels Hierarchy: The concept of logical levels was initially developed by anthropologist Gregory Bateson and later adapted by Dilts. It consists of a hierarchy of levels within an individual, group, or organization. Each level builds upon the level below it and influences it.
  • Six Logical Levels:
    • Environment: The base level encompasses external conditions and experiences that affect a person. It includes the temporal and spatial context in which experiences occur.
    • Behavior: This level focuses on actions, words, gestures, movements, and reactions to others. It encompasses patterns of interaction and communication.
    • Capabilities: Refers to the skills, abilities, and ways of generating and directing behavior within a specific environment. It involves learning, decision-making, and creativity.
    • Values and Beliefs: These are the fundamental traits that motivate actions based on individual beliefs derived from previous experiences. They shape meaning and are the foundation of personal identity and company culture.
    • Identity: Identity encompasses a sense of purpose, mission, and individual or organizational identity. It is influenced by ego (survival, recognition) and soul (mission, contribution).
    • Vision: The highest level represents personal, philosophical, religious, or business affiliation and vision. It involves profound questions about life’s meaning, purpose, and devotion to a greater cause.
  • Applications of Dilts’ Logical Levels: The framework is used in problem-solving, personal development, conflict resolution, motivation, and leadership. It helps individuals analyze their thought processes and shift perspectives for fresh insights.

Connected Business Heuristics

Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking

Convergent thinking occurs when the solution to a problem can be found by applying established rules and logical reasoning. Whereas divergent thinking is an unstructured problem-solving method where participants are encouraged to develop many innovative ideas or solutions to a given problem. Where convergent thinking might work for larger, mature organizations where divergent thinking is more suited for startups and innovative companies.

Second-Order Thinking

Second-order thinking is a means of assessing the implications of our decisions by considering future consequences. Second-order thinking is a mental model that considers all future possibilities. It encourages individuals to think outside of the box so that they can prepare for every and any eventuality. It also discourages the tendency for individuals to default to the most obvious choice.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking involves analyzing observations, facts, evidence, and arguments to form a judgment about what someone reads, hears, says, or writes.

Systems Thinking

Systems thinking is a holistic means of investigating the factors and interactions that could contribute to a potential outcome. It is about thinking non-linearly, and understanding the second-order consequences of actions and input into the system.

Vertical Thinking

Vertical thinking, on the other hand, is a problem-solving approach that favors a selective, analytical, structured, and sequential mindset. The focus of vertical thinking is to arrive at a reasoned, defined solution.

First-Principles Thinking

First-principles thinking – sometimes called reasoning from first principles – is used to reverse-engineer complex problems and encourage creativity. It involves breaking down problems into basic elements and reassembling them from the ground up. Elon Musk is among the strongest proponents of this way of thinking.

Ladder Of Inference

The ladder of inference is a conscious or subconscious thinking process where an individual moves from a fact to a decision or action. The ladder of inference was created by academic Chris Argyris to illustrate how people form and then use mental models to make decisions.

Six Thinking Hats Model

The Six Thinking Hats model was created by psychologist Edward de Bono in 1986, who noted that personality type was a key driver of how people approached problem-solving. For example, optimists view situations differently from pessimists. Analytical individuals may generate ideas that a more emotional person would not, and vice versa.

Second-Order Thinking

Second-order thinking is a means of assessing the implications of our decisions by considering future consequences. Second-order thinking is a mental model that considers all future possibilities. It encourages individuals to think outside of the box so that they can prepare for every and eventuality. It also discourages the tendency for individuals to default to the most obvious choice.

Lateral Thinking

Lateral thinking is a business strategy that involves approaching a problem from a different direction. The strategy attempts to remove traditionally formulaic and routine approaches to problem-solving by advocating creative thinking, therefore finding unconventional ways to solve a known problem. This sort of non-linear approach to problem-solving, can at times, create a big impact.

Moonshot Thinking

Moonshot thinking is an approach to innovation, and it can be applied to business or any other discipline where you target at least 10X goals. That shifts the mindset, and it empowers a team of people to look for unconventional solutions, thus starting from first principles, by leveraging on fast-paced experimentation.


The concept of cognitive biases was introduced and popularized by the work of Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1972. Biases are seen as systematic errors and flaws that make humans deviate from the standards of rationality, thus making us inept at making good decisions under uncertainty.

Bounded Rationality

Bounded rationality is a concept attributed to Herbert Simon, an economist and political scientist interested in decision-making and how we make decisions in the real world. In fact, he believed that rather than optimizing (which was the mainstream view in the past decades) humans follow what he called satisficing.

Dunning-Kruger Effect

The Dunning-Kruger effect describes a cognitive bias where people with low ability in a task overestimate their ability to perform that task well. Consumers or businesses that do not possess the requisite knowledge make bad decisions. What’s more, knowledge gaps prevent the person or business from seeing their mistakes.

Mandela Effect

The Mandela effect is a phenomenon where a large group of people remembers an event differently from how it occurred. The Mandela effect was first described in relation to Fiona Broome, who believed that former South African President Nelson Mandela died in prison during the 1980s. While Mandela was released from prison in 1990 and died 23 years later, Broome remembered news coverage of his death in prison and even a speech from his widow. Of course, neither event occurred in reality. But Broome was later to discover that she was not the only one with the same recollection of events.

Crowding-Out Effect

The crowding-out effect occurs when public sector spending reduces spending in the private sector.

Bandwagon Effect

The bandwagon effect tells us that the more a belief or idea has been adopted by more people within a group, the more the individual adoption of that idea might increase within the same group. This is the psychological effect that leads to herd mentality. What in marketing can be associated with social proof.

Read Next: BiasesBounded RationalityMandela EffectDunning-Kruger EffectLindy EffectCrowding Out EffectBandwagon Effect.

Other connected business strategy frameworks

PESTEL Analysis

The PESTEL analysis is a framework that can help marketers assess whether macro-economic factors are affecting an organization. This is a critical step that helps organizations identify potential threats and weaknesses that can be used in other frameworks such as SWOT or to gain a broader and better understanding of the overall marketing environment.

STEEP Analysis

The STEEP analysis is a tool used to map the external factors that impact an organization. STEEP stands for the five key areas on which the analysis focuses: socio-cultural, technological, economic, environmental/ecological, and political. Usually, the STEEP analysis is complementary or alternative to other methods such as SWOT or PESTEL analyses.

STEEPLE Analysis

The STEEPLE analysis is a variation of the STEEP analysis. Where the step analysis comprises socio-cultural, technological, economic, environmental/ecological, and political factors as the base of the analysis. The STEEPLE analysis adds other two factors such as Legal and Ethical.

Porter’s Five Forces

Porter’s Five Forces is a model that helps organizations to gain a better understanding of their industries and competition. Published for the first time by Professor Michael Porter in his book “Competitive Strategy” in the 1980s. The model breaks down industries and markets by analyzing them through five forces.

SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis is a framework used for evaluating the business’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It can aid in identifying the problematic areas of your business so that you can maximize your opportunities. It will also alert you to the challenges your organization might face in the future.

BCG Matrix

In the 1970s, Bruce D. Henderson, founder of the Boston Consulting Group, came up with The Product Portfolio (aka BCG Matrix, or Growth-share Matrix), which would look at a successful business product portfolio based on potential growth and market shares. It divided products into four main categories: cash cows, pets (dogs), question marks, and stars.

Balanced Scorecard

First proposed by accounting academic Robert Kaplan, the balanced scorecard is a management system that allows an organization to focus on big-picture strategic goals. The four perspectives of the balanced scorecard include financial, customer, business process, and organizational capacity. From there, according to the balanced scorecard, it’s possible to have a holistic view of the business.

Blue Ocean Strategy

A blue ocean is a strategy where the boundaries of existing markets are redefined, and new uncontested markets are created. At its core, there is value innovation, for which uncontested markets are created, where competition is made irrelevant. And the cost-value trade-off is broken. Thus, companies following a blue ocean strategy offer much more value at a lower cost for the end customers.

Scenario Planning

Businesses use scenario planning to make assumptions on future events and how their respective business environments may change in response to those future events. Therefore, scenario planning identifies specific uncertainties – or different realities and how they might affect future business operations. Scenario planning attempts at better strategic decision-making by avoiding two pitfalls: underprediction, and over-prediction.

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