Reverse Psychology

Reverse psychology is a psychological technique where individuals are persuaded to do something by suggesting the opposite of what is desired. It involves using reverse instruction and an indirect approach to challenge individuals to defy the suggestion, leading to behavioral influence and a creative way of persuasion. However, it comes with effectiveness variations and ethical considerations.


Reverse Psychology is a psychological strategy or communication technique in which an individual, often intentionally, advocates or suggests the opposite of what they desire or expect from others. The underlying premise of Reverse Psychology is to influence behavior or decision-making by inducing a contrary response to the one being suggested. It operates on the principle that humans have a natural tendency to resist direct persuasion and may react against what they perceive as an attempt to control or influence them.

Key Characteristics of Reverse Psychology:

Key Characteristics

  1. Indirect Persuasion: Reverse Psychology involves indirect persuasion, where individuals aim to achieve their desired outcome by advocating for the opposite.
  2. Psychological Reactance: The technique capitalizes on the psychological phenomenon known as reactance, wherein individuals exhibit resistance or opposition when they perceive their freedom of choice or autonomy to be threatened.
  3. Emotionally Charged: Reverse Psychology often triggers emotional responses, as individuals may feel manipulated or compelled to assert their independence.
  4. Strategic Communication: It is a strategic form of communication that requires careful planning and understanding of the target audience’s psychology.
  5. Versatility: Reverse Psychology can be applied in various contexts, from parenting and relationships to marketing and negotiations.

Benefits of Using Reverse Psychology

Employing Reverse Psychology can offer several potential benefits in different situations:

  1. Influencing Behavior: Reverse Psychology can be an effective way to influence someone’s behavior or decision-making without resorting to direct persuasion.
  2. Preserving Autonomy: It allows individuals to maintain a sense of autonomy and choice, reducing resistance that may arise from overt attempts to control.
  3. Problem Resolution: In conflict situations, Reverse Psychology can encourage cooperation and problem resolution by making individuals feel that they are making choices voluntarily.
  4. Parenting and Education: Parents and educators can use Reverse Psychology to encourage children and students to make responsible choices and take ownership of their actions.
  5. Marketing and Sales: Marketers can employ Reverse Psychology to pique consumer interest and encourage purchases by framing them as choices rather than mandates.
  6. Negotiation and Persuasion: In negotiation scenarios, Reverse Psychology can be a valuable tool to steer discussions and reach mutually beneficial agreements.

Challenges and Ethical Considerations

While Reverse Psychology can be a useful tactic, it also presents certain challenges and ethical considerations:

  1. Potential Backfire: Reverse Psychology may not always produce the desired outcome and can backfire if individuals perceive manipulation and react negatively.
  2. Trust Erosion: Overuse of Reverse Psychology can erode trust in relationships, as individuals may feel manipulated or deceived.
  3. Ethical Concerns: Employing Reverse Psychology without transparency or for unethical purposes can raise moral and ethical concerns.
  4. Individual Differences: Not everyone responds to Reverse Psychology in the same way, and its effectiveness may vary based on individual personality traits and past experiences.
  5. Long-Term Effects: Relying solely on Reverse Psychology as a communication tactic may not foster genuine understanding or cooperation in the long term.

Use Cases and Examples

To gain a better understanding of how Reverse Psychology is applied in practical scenarios, let’s explore some real-world use cases and examples:

1. Parenting

Parents often use Reverse Psychology to encourage their children to make responsible choices:

Example: A parent who wants their child to eat vegetables may tell the child, “You probably won’t like these broccoli florets; they’re too green for you.” The child, wanting to assert their independence, may then try the broccoli.

2. Smoking Cessation

In smoking cessation programs, Reverse Psychology can motivate smokers to quit by framing quitting as a choice:

Example: A smoking cessation campaign might use slogans like “Keep smoking; it’s your life” to make smokers feel they have control over their decision to quit.

3. Marketing and Advertising

Marketers often employ Reverse Psychology to capture consumers’ attention and encourage purchases:

Example: An ad for a fitness program might say, “Don’t join us if you’re not serious about getting in shape.” This challenges potential customers to prove their commitment by signing up.

4. Relationship Dynamics

In relationships, Reverse Psychology can be used to address conflicts and encourage understanding:

Example: During an argument, one partner might say, “Fine, go ahead and do what you want; I don’t care.” The other partner may then reconsider their position to avoid escalating the conflict.

5. Negotiation and Business

In business negotiations, Reverse Psychology can shape discussions and outcomes:

Example: A negotiator might say, “I don’t think you can meet our delivery deadline.” This statement challenges the other party to prove their capabilities, potentially leading to a more favorable agreement.

6. Academic Settings

Educators can employ Reverse Psychology to motivate students to take ownership of their learning:

Example: A teacher might tell students, “I don’t think you’ll be able to complete this challenging assignment.” This may motivate students to prove their teacher wrong by excelling in the task.

Reverse Psychology: Key Highlights

  • Reverse Psychology Technique: Reverse psychology is a psychological strategy where individuals are persuaded to take a desired action by suggesting the opposite of what is wanted.
  • Reverse Instruction: This technique involves presenting a suggestion that contradicts the desired behavior. For example, if you want someone to do their homework, you might suggest they shouldn’t do it.
  • Indirect Approach: The persuader appears to advocate against the desired action, creating a challenge for the individual to defy the suggestion.
  • Appealing Challenge: The challenge of defying the suggestion can entice individuals to take the desired action as a way of proving their independence or asserting control.
  • Use Cases: Reverse psychology is used in parenting to encourage desired behaviors in children, in sales and marketing to engage consumers, and in therapy to address specific issues.
  • Behavioral Influence: Reverse psychology can positively influence behaviors and decisions by creating a unique mindset shift.
  • Creative Approach: It offers a creative and unexpected way of persuasion that can capture attention.
  • Mindset Shift: The technique may result in a shift in an individual’s perspective, leading them to consider an action they might not have otherwise.
  • Effectiveness Variations: The success of reverse psychology varies based on an individual’s personality, mindset, and attitude towards challenges.
  • Ethical Concerns: Some may question the ethics of using manipulative techniques to influence behavior.
  • Unintended Outcomes: Reverse psychology may lead to unintended consequences or resistance if the individual sees through the strategy.
  • Examples: Encouraging healthy habits by suggesting someone can’t achieve them, getting children to eat vegetables by implying they are only for adults, or encouraging hard work by saying a task is too difficult.
  • Balancing Ethical Considerations: When using reverse psychology, it’s important to balance the potential benefits with ethical considerations and transparency.

Connected Thinking Frameworks

Convergent vs. Divergent Thinking

Convergent thinking occurs when the solution to a problem can be found by applying established rules and logical reasoning. Whereas divergent thinking is an unstructured problem-solving method where participants are encouraged to develop many innovative ideas or solutions to a given problem. Where convergent thinking might work for larger, mature organizations where divergent thinking is more suited for startups and innovative companies.

Critical Thinking

Critical thinking involves analyzing observations, facts, evidence, and arguments to form a judgment about what someone reads, hears, says, or writes.


The concept of cognitive biases was introduced and popularized by the work of Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman in 1972. Biases are seen as systematic errors and flaws that make humans deviate from the standards of rationality, thus making us inept at making good decisions under uncertainty.

Second-Order Thinking

Second-order thinking is a means of assessing the implications of our decisions by considering future consequences. Second-order thinking is a mental model that considers all future possibilities. It encourages individuals to think outside of the box so that they can prepare for every and eventuality. It also discourages the tendency for individuals to default to the most obvious choice.

Lateral Thinking

Lateral thinking is a business strategy that involves approaching a problem from a different direction. The strategy attempts to remove traditionally formulaic and routine approaches to problem-solving by advocating creative thinking, therefore finding unconventional ways to solve a known problem. This sort of non-linear approach to problem-solving, can at times, create a big impact.

Bounded Rationality

Bounded rationality is a concept attributed to Herbert Simon, an economist and political scientist interested in decision-making and how we make decisions in the real world. In fact, he believed that rather than optimizing (which was the mainstream view in the past decades) humans follow what he called satisficing.

Dunning-Kruger Effect

The Dunning-Kruger effect describes a cognitive bias where people with low ability in a task overestimate their ability to perform that task well. Consumers or businesses that do not possess the requisite knowledge make bad decisions. What’s more, knowledge gaps prevent the person or business from seeing their mistakes.

Occam’s Razor

Occam’s Razor states that one should not increase (beyond reason) the number of entities required to explain anything. All things being equal, the simplest solution is often the best one. The principle is attributed to 14th-century English theologian William of Ockham.

Lindy Effect

The Lindy Effect is a theory about the ageing of non-perishable things, like technology or ideas. Popularized by author Nicholas Nassim Taleb, the Lindy Effect states that non-perishable things like technology age – linearly – in reverse. Therefore, the older an idea or a technology, the same will be its life expectancy.


Antifragility was first coined as a term by author, and options trader Nassim Nicholas Taleb. Antifragility is a characteristic of systems that thrive as a result of stressors, volatility, and randomness. Therefore, Antifragile is the opposite of fragile. Where a fragile thing breaks up to volatility; a robust thing resists volatility. An antifragile thing gets stronger from volatility (provided the level of stressors and randomness doesn’t pass a certain threshold).

Systems Thinking

Systems thinking is a holistic means of investigating the factors and interactions that could contribute to a potential outcome. It is about thinking non-linearly, and understanding the second-order consequences of actions and input into the system.

Vertical Thinking

Vertical thinking, on the other hand, is a problem-solving approach that favors a selective, analytical, structured, and sequential mindset. The focus of vertical thinking is to arrive at a reasoned, defined solution.

Maslow’s Hammer

Maslow’s Hammer, otherwise known as the law of the instrument or the Einstellung effect, is a cognitive bias causing an over-reliance on a familiar tool. This can be expressed as the tendency to overuse a known tool (perhaps a hammer) to solve issues that might require a different tool. This problem is persistent in the business world where perhaps known tools or frameworks might be used in the wrong context (like business plans used as planning tools instead of only investors’ pitches).

Peter Principle

The Peter Principle was first described by Canadian sociologist Lawrence J. Peter in his 1969 book The Peter Principle. The Peter Principle states that people are continually promoted within an organization until they reach their level of incompetence.

Straw Man Fallacy

The straw man fallacy describes an argument that misrepresents an opponent’s stance to make rebuttal more convenient. The straw man fallacy is a type of informal logical fallacy, defined as a flaw in the structure of an argument that renders it invalid.

Streisand Effect

The Streisand Effect is a paradoxical phenomenon where the act of suppressing information to reduce visibility causes it to become more visible. In 2003, Streisand attempted to suppress aerial photographs of her Californian home by suing photographer Kenneth Adelman for an invasion of privacy. Adelman, who Streisand assumed was paparazzi, was instead taking photographs to document and study coastal erosion. In her quest for more privacy, Streisand’s efforts had the opposite effect.


As highlighted by German psychologist Gerd Gigerenzer in the paper “Heuristic Decision Making,” the term heuristic is of Greek origin, meaning “serving to find out or discover.” More precisely, a heuristic is a fast and accurate way to make decisions in the real world, which is driven by uncertainty.

Recognition Heuristic

The recognition heuristic is a psychological model of judgment and decision making. It is part of a suite of simple and economical heuristics proposed by psychologists Daniel Goldstein and Gerd Gigerenzer. The recognition heuristic argues that inferences are made about an object based on whether it is recognized or not.

Representativeness Heuristic

The representativeness heuristic was first described by psychologists Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky. The representativeness heuristic judges the probability of an event according to the degree to which that event resembles a broader class. When queried, most will choose the first option because the description of John matches the stereotype we may hold for an archaeologist.

Take-The-Best Heuristic

The take-the-best heuristic is a decision-making shortcut that helps an individual choose between several alternatives. The take-the-best (TTB) heuristic decides between two or more alternatives based on a single good attribute, otherwise known as a cue. In the process, less desirable attributes are ignored.

Bundling Bias

The bundling bias is a cognitive bias in e-commerce where a consumer tends not to use all of the products bought as a group, or bundle. Bundling occurs when individual products or services are sold together as a bundle. Common examples are tickets and experiences. The bundling bias dictates that consumers are less likely to use each item in the bundle. This means that the value of the bundle and indeed the value of each item in the bundle is decreased.

Barnum Effect

The Barnum Effect is a cognitive bias where individuals believe that generic information – which applies to most people – is specifically tailored for themselves.

First-Principles Thinking

First-principles thinking – sometimes called reasoning from first principles – is used to reverse-engineer complex problems and encourage creativity. It involves breaking down problems into basic elements and reassembling them from the ground up. Elon Musk is among the strongest proponents of this way of thinking.

Ladder Of Inference

The ladder of inference is a conscious or subconscious thinking process where an individual moves from a fact to a decision or action. The ladder of inference was created by academic Chris Argyris to illustrate how people form and then use mental models to make decisions.

Goodhart’s Law

Goodhart’s Law is named after British monetary policy theorist and economist Charles Goodhart. Speaking at a conference in Sydney in 1975, Goodhart said that “any observed statistical regularity will tend to collapse once pressure is placed upon it for control purposes.” Goodhart’s Law states that when a measure becomes a target, it ceases to be a good measure.

Six Thinking Hats Model

The Six Thinking Hats model was created by psychologist Edward de Bono in 1986, who noted that personality type was a key driver of how people approached problem-solving. For example, optimists view situations differently from pessimists. Analytical individuals may generate ideas that a more emotional person would not, and vice versa.

Mandela Effect

The Mandela effect is a phenomenon where a large group of people remembers an event differently from how it occurred. The Mandela effect was first described in relation to Fiona Broome, who believed that former South African President Nelson Mandela died in prison during the 1980s. While Mandela was released from prison in 1990 and died 23 years later, Broome remembered news coverage of his death in prison and even a speech from his widow. Of course, neither event occurred in reality. But Broome was later to discover that she was not the only one with the same recollection of events.

Crowding-Out Effect

The crowding-out effect occurs when public sector spending reduces spending in the private sector.

Bandwagon Effect

The bandwagon effect tells us that the more a belief or idea has been adopted by more people within a group, the more the individual adoption of that idea might increase within the same group. This is the psychological effect that leads to herd mentality. What in marketing can be associated with social proof.

Moore’s Law

Moore’s law states that the number of transistors on a microchip doubles approximately every two years. This observation was made by Intel co-founder Gordon Moore in 1965 and it become a guiding principle for the semiconductor industry and has had far-reaching implications for technology as a whole.

Disruptive Innovation

Disruptive innovation as a term was first described by Clayton M. Christensen, an American academic and business consultant whom The Economist called “the most influential management thinker of his time.” Disruptive innovation describes the process by which a product or service takes hold at the bottom of a market and eventually displaces established competitors, products, firms, or alliances.

Value Migration

Value migration was first described by author Adrian Slywotzky in his 1996 book Value Migration – How to Think Several Moves Ahead of the Competition. Value migration is the transferal of value-creating forces from outdated business models to something better able to satisfy consumer demands.

Bye-Now Effect

The bye-now effect describes the tendency for consumers to think of the word “buy” when they read the word “bye”. In a study that tracked diners at a name-your-own-price restaurant, each diner was asked to read one of two phrases before ordering their meal. The first phrase, “so long”, resulted in diners paying an average of $32 per meal. But when diners recited the phrase “bye bye” before ordering, the average price per meal rose to $45.


Groupthink occurs when well-intentioned individuals make non-optimal or irrational decisions based on a belief that dissent is impossible or on a motivation to conform. Groupthink occurs when members of a group reach a consensus without critical reasoning or evaluation of the alternatives and their consequences.


A stereotype is a fixed and over-generalized belief about a particular group or class of people. These beliefs are based on the false assumption that certain characteristics are common to every individual residing in that group. Many stereotypes have a long and sometimes controversial history and are a direct consequence of various political, social, or economic events. Stereotyping is the process of making assumptions about a person or group of people based on various attributes, including gender, race, religion, or physical traits.

Murphy’s Law

Murphy’s Law states that if anything can go wrong, it will go wrong. Murphy’s Law was named after aerospace engineer Edward A. Murphy. During his time working at Edwards Air Force Base in 1949, Murphy cursed a technician who had improperly wired an electrical component and said, “If there is any way to do it wrong, he’ll find it.”

Law of Unintended Consequences

The law of unintended consequences was first mentioned by British philosopher John Locke when writing to parliament about the unintended effects of interest rate rises. However, it was popularized in 1936 by American sociologist Robert K. Merton who looked at unexpected, unanticipated, and unintended consequences and their impact on society.

Fundamental Attribution Error

Fundamental attribution error is a bias people display when judging the behavior of others. The tendency is to over-emphasize personal characteristics and under-emphasize environmental and situational factors.

Outcome Bias

Outcome bias describes a tendency to evaluate a decision based on its outcome and not on the process by which the decision was reached. In other words, the quality of a decision is only determined once the outcome is known. Outcome bias occurs when a decision is based on the outcome of previous events without regard for how those events developed.

Hindsight Bias

Hindsight bias is the tendency for people to perceive past events as more predictable than they actually were. The result of a presidential election, for example, seems more obvious when the winner is announced. The same can also be said for the avid sports fan who predicted the correct outcome of a match regardless of whether their team won or lost. Hindsight bias, therefore, is the tendency for an individual to convince themselves that they accurately predicted an event before it happened.

Read Next: BiasesBounded RationalityMandela EffectDunning-Kruger EffectLindy EffectCrowding Out EffectBandwagon Effect.

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