gafa

What Is GAFA? Inside The Multi-Platform Ecosystem That Dominates The World

GAFA is an acronym for Google, Apple, Facebook, and Amazon. The term GAFA might have become extremely popular when France’s publishers and media started to use the concept to mean the tech monopolists that control a large chunk of global digital information and online commerce.

gafa-revenues

Google

google-business-model
Google is a platform, and a tech media company running an attention-based business model. As of 2021, Alphabet’s Google generated over $257 billion in revenues. Over $209 billion (over 81% of the total revenues) came from Google Advertising products (Google Search, YouTube Ads, and Network Members sites). They were followed by over $28 billion in other revenues (comprising Google Play, Pixel phones, and YouTube Premium), and by Google Cloud, which generated over $19 billion in 2021.
how-does-google-make-money
Google (now Alphabet) primarily makes money through advertising. The Google search engine, while free, is monetized with paid advertising. In 2021 Google’s advertising generated over $209 billion (beyond Google Search, this comprises YouTube Ads and the Network Members Sites) compared to $257 billion in net sales. Advertising represented over 81% of net sales, followed by Google Cloud ($19 billion) and Google’s other revenue streams (Google Play, Pixel phones, and YouTube Premium).

Read: Google Business Model and Google Business Strategy

Amazon

amazon-business-model
Amazon has a diversified business model. In 2021 Amazon posted over $469 billion in revenues and over $33 billion in net profits. Online stores contributed to over 47% of Amazon revenues, Third-party Seller Services,  Amazon AWS, Subscription Services, Advertising revenues and Physical Stores.

Amazon has a diversified business model

Read: Amazon Business Model and Amazon Business Strategy

Facebook

facebook-business-model
Facebook, the main product of Meta is an attention merchant. As such, its algorithms condense the attention of over 2.91 billion monthly active users as of June 2021. Meta generated $117.9 billion in revenues, in 2021, of which $114.9 billion from advertising (97.4% of the total revenues) and over $2.2 billion from Reality Labs (the augmented and virtual reality products arm).

Facebook makes money with an advertising business model. Almost all the revenue comes from targeted advertising. 

Read: Facebook Business Model and Facebook Business Strategy

Apple

apple-business-model
Apple has a business model that is broken down between products and services. Apple generated over $365 billion in revenues in 2021, of which $191.9 came from the iPhone sales, $35.2 came from Mac sales, $38.3 came from accessories and wearables (AirPods, Apple TV, Apple Watch, Beats products, HomePod, iPod touch, and accessories), $31.86 billion came from iPad sales, and $68.4 billion came from services.

When looking at the Apple Business Model, it is easy to assume that it is solely a product company, which sells devices that are beautifully crafted.

However, there would have been no success for the Mac without its OS operating system.

There would not have been iPod success without iTunes. And no success for iPhones without the Apple Store.

Read: Apple Business Model and Apple Business Strategy

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