- Vendor lock-in refers to any measure a company implements to dissuade customers from migrating away from its products or services.
- Real-world consumer examples of vendor lock-in include brands such as Apple, Lexmark, and Keurig. More generally speaking, DSLR and cordless tool manufacturers also lock their customers into proprietary systems.
- Avoiding vendor lock-in may involve evaluating the market and the vendor before doing business, reading the contractual fine print, and clarifying whether an exit plan or migration support is available.
Understanding vendor lock-in
Vendor lock-in refers to any measure a company implements to dissuade customers from migrating away from its products or services.
For the customer, vendor lock-in occurs when the cost of switching to another service provider is prohibitively expensive. In addition to the financial cost, the customer may also be “locked in” because of an insufficient workforce, contractual restraints, or the need to avoid operational interruptions.
Consider the example of an office that hires a vendor to install 20 spring water stations, with each station only compatible with bottles the vendor sells. Now consider what would happen if employees found the spring water to be of poor quality.
Switching to a new vendor (with different sized bottles) would require each station to be replaced. Since this is a cost that the company cannot absorb, it is effectively forced to endure the less palatable water or remove the stations entirely. Here, the deliberate measure by the water company is a station whose unique dimensions mean it cannot dispense water from a competitor’s product.
Other examples of vendor lock-in
Here are some real-world consumer examples of vendor lock-in at work:
- Apple iTunes – in the early days of iTunes, consumers who purchased music in the iTunes store could only play it on Apple brand products such as the iPod. Each file was encoded in a proprietary format to ensure the music was kept in the company’s ecosystem.
- Ink manufacturers – printer ink is a lucrative business, and many ink manufacturers warn customers that any use of a non-branded ink will void the printer’s warranty. Lexmark is one brand that asks its customers to enter a 12-digit code to verify the authenticity of each toner cartridge.
- Coffee pods – branded coffee pods, such as those offered by Keurig, are only compatible with Keurig coffee machines. The company has remained a source of vendor lock-in despite partnerships between other companies in the industry to standardize the size of different pods.
- DSLR lenses – while adapters are available in limited situations, a photographer with a Nikon DSLR camera will not be able to mount a Canon lens, and vice versa. This locks the customer into whatever branded lenses are available.
- Cordless tools – with cordless, battery-powered tools becoming increasingly popular, some brands manufacture batteries that will only fit their products. This includes battery recharger systems.
How can vendor lock-in be avoided?
For consumers and business customers alike, there are several ways vendor lock-in can be avoided:
- Evaluate the market and the provider – it’s important to perform some prior market research to understand the various solutions and how they compare. Choosing a vendor that does not have a history of vendor lock-in saves a lot of pain later. Customer reviews can be an effective way to scrutinize a company’s past behavior in this regard.
- Read the fine print – for subscription-based services like cloud computing, the client should search the fine print for the auto-renew clause. Many vendors will auto-renew a contract unless otherwise instructed, meaning the business misses an opportunity to move elsewhere at no cost.
- Ask questions – before entering into an agreement, it can also be helpful to ask the vendor questions. What would an exit plan look like? Does it provide migration tools, support, and other services to facilitate a smooth transition to another product?