SOSTAC is a robust marketing planning model consisting of stages like Situation Analysis, Objectives, Strategy, Tactics, Actions, and Control. It offers a structured approach for crafting and executing effective marketing strategies, ensuring clear communication and improved outcomes.

SOSTAC ModelDescriptionImplicationsExamplesApplications
Situation (S)In the “Situation” phase, the current status and context are assessed. This includes understanding the organization’s current position, market conditions, competitors, and any internal or external factors that may impact the plan. A SWOT analysis is often conducted to identify strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.– Provides a clear understanding of the current business environment. – Identifies internal and external factors that may influence the marketing plan. – Highlights areas of strength and weakness within the organization. – Recognizes potential opportunities and threats in the market.– Analyzing market research data to assess the competitive landscape. – Conducting a SWOT analysis to evaluate internal strengths and weaknesses. – Assessing current marketing strategies and their effectiveness.– Strategic Planning: Develop a comprehensive understanding of the business landscape before formulating strategies. – Marketing Planning: Identify market opportunities and challenges to inform marketing strategies. – Business Analysis: Assess the overall situation to make informed business decisions. – Campaign Planning: Gather data on market conditions and competitors to plan effective marketing campaigns.
Objectives (O)The “Objectives” phase involves setting clear and measurable goals and objectives. These objectives should align with the organization’s overall mission and vision. They specify what the plan aims to achieve within a defined timeframe. Objectives should be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).– Provides a focused direction for the plan with specific goals to achieve. – Ensures alignment with the organization’s mission and vision. – Allows for the measurement of progress and success. – Helps in prioritizing activities and resources.– Setting a goal to increase market share by 15% within the next fiscal year. – Defining an objective to improve customer satisfaction ratings from 75% to 90% in the next six months. – Establishing a target to launch a new product line and achieve $1 million in sales within the first year.– Marketing Strategy: Define specific marketing objectives to guide campaign efforts. – Project Planning: Establish clear project objectives to drive project success. – Performance Measurement: Create measurable objectives to assess performance and progress. – Strategic Goal Setting: Set clear business goals to align organizational efforts.
Strategy (ST)In the “Strategy” phase, the plan outlines the strategies and tactics that will be employed to achieve the defined objectives. This includes determining target audiences, positioning, pricing, distribution channels, promotional activities, and marketing mix elements. The strategy should be well-defined and tailored to the objectives.– Provides a roadmap for achieving the objectives. – Defines the approach and tactics to reach the target audience. – Guides decision-making regarding product/service positioning, pricing, and promotion. – Ensures that strategies are aligned with the overall plan.– Developing a content marketing strategy to reach and engage the target audience. – Designing a pricing strategy that emphasizes value for premium products. – Outlining a promotional strategy that includes online advertising, social media campaigns, and influencer partnerships.– Marketing Strategy: Develop comprehensive marketing strategies to reach specific objectives. – Product Launch: Plan product launch strategies, including positioning and pricing. – Sales and Distribution: Define distribution strategies to reach target markets effectively. – Brand Management: Develop branding strategies to enhance brand positioning and visibility.
Tactics (T)The “Tactics” phase delves into the specific actions and tactics that will be executed as part of the strategy. It includes detailed plans for marketing campaigns, content creation, advertising, sales promotions, and other activities. Tactics outline who will do what, when, and how. It’s the actionable part of the plan.– Provides a detailed execution plan with specific tasks and responsibilities. – Ensures a clear roadmap for implementation. – Defines timelines and resources required for each tactic. – Facilitates coordination and collaboration among team members.– Creating a content calendar specifying topics, formats, and publishing dates for blog posts and videos. – Designing ad creatives and setting up ad campaigns on various platforms, such as Google Ads and Facebook Ads. – Developing a trade show participation plan, including booth design, staff assignments, and promotional materials.– Marketing Execution: Implement marketing tactics and campaigns according to the plan. – Project Management: Outline detailed project tasks and timelines for successful execution. – Event Planning: Plan and coordinate events, exhibitions, or conferences with precision. – Advertising Campaigns: Execute advertising tactics across multiple channels effectively.
Action (A)In the “Action” phase, the plan is put into motion. All the tactics and activities outlined in the previous phase are executed. This phase involves close monitoring and management of the plan’s implementation, ensuring that everything is proceeding according to schedule and that resources are being utilized efficiently.– Translates the plan into real-world actions. – Requires effective coordination and communication among team members. – Involves ongoing monitoring and adjustments as needed. – Ensures that resources are allocated effectively to meet objectives.– Launching marketing campaigns on specified dates and platforms. – Monitoring ad performance and making adjustments to optimize results. – Tracking progress toward objectives and regularly reviewing key performance indicators (KPIs).– Project Implementation: Execute projects and initiatives based on established plans. – Campaign Management: Oversee marketing campaigns, making real-time adjustments as needed. – Performance Monitoring: Continuously monitor project or campaign performance to achieve objectives. – Resource Allocation: Manage resources to maximize efficiency and effectiveness.
Control (C)The “Control” phase focuses on evaluating the results and effectiveness of the plan’s execution. Key performance indicators (KPIs) and metrics are analyzed to determine whether the objectives have been met. If necessary, adjustments and improvements are made to enhance future planning and execution. This phase closes the loop for continuous improvement.– Assesses the success and impact of the plan against defined objectives. – Identifies areas of improvement and lessons learned. – Informs future planning and decision-making based on data and insights. – Ensures accountability for results and performance.– Analyzing sales data to assess revenue growth and market share increase. – Reviewing customer feedback and satisfaction scores to measure the success of customer-centric initiatives. – Conducting a post-mortem analysis of a product launch to identify strengths and weaknesses for future launches.– Performance Evaluation: Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies and tactics using data-driven insights. – Continuous Improvement: Identify areas for improvement and refine future plans accordingly. – Decision Support: Provide data-backed insights to inform strategic decisions. – Post-Campaign Analysis: Assess the outcomes of marketing campaigns and adjust future strategies.

Introduction to the SOSTAC Model

The SOSTAC model is designed to guide marketers and businesses through the process of creating a well-structured and actionable marketing plan. It serves as a roadmap for developing a clear and coherent marketing strategy that aligns with an organization’s goals and objectives.

The key components of the SOSTAC model are as follows:

  1. Situation Analysis: This stage involves a thorough assessment of the current market environment, including an analysis of competitors, customer behavior, market trends, and the organization’s internal strengths and weaknesses.
  2. Objectives: Setting clear and specific marketing objectives that align with the organization’s overall goals. Objectives should be measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).
  3. Strategy: Developing a comprehensive marketing strategy that outlines the overall approach for achieving the set objectives. This includes identifying target audiences, positioning, and differentiation strategies.
  4. Tactics: Defining the specific tactics and channels that will be used to implement the marketing strategy. Tactics may include advertising, content marketing, social media, email marketing, and more.
  5. Actions: Detailing the specific action steps required to execute the chosen tactics. This stage involves creating a timeline, assigning responsibilities, and ensuring all necessary resources are available.
  6. Control: Implementing mechanisms for monitoring and measuring the success of the marketing plan. This includes key performance indicators (KPIs), metrics, and regular reviews to make necessary adjustments.

Principles of the SOSTAC Model

The SOSTAC model is guided by several principles:

  1. Strategic Planning: The SOSTAC model emphasizes the importance of strategic planning in marketing. It encourages organizations to think critically about their marketing efforts and align them with their broader business objectives.
  2. Data-Driven Decision Making: A thorough situation analysis, the first step in the model, relies on data and research to inform marketing decisions. This ensures that strategies and tactics are grounded in a solid understanding of the market and customer behavior.
  3. Integration: The model promotes the integration of various marketing elements and channels into a cohesive strategy. It encourages marketers to consider how different tactics work together to achieve objectives.
  4. Flexibility: The SOSTAC model acknowledges that marketing plans may need to adapt to changing circumstances and market dynamics. Regular monitoring and control mechanisms allow for flexibility and adjustments as needed.

Importance of the SOSTAC Model

The SOSTAC model holds significant importance in marketing and strategic planning for several reasons:

  1. Clarity and Structure: It provides a clear and structured framework for developing marketing plans, ensuring that all essential components are considered.
  2. Alignment: The model helps align marketing efforts with an organization’s overall goals and objectives, ensuring that marketing activities support the broader strategy.
  3. Measurement and Evaluation: By defining specific objectives and key performance indicators, the SOSTAC model facilitates the measurement and evaluation of marketing effectiveness.
  4. Efficiency: It promotes efficient resource allocation by focusing on tactics that are most likely to achieve the desired outcomes.
  5. Communication: The model facilitates communication and collaboration among marketing teams and other departments within an organization.

Benefits of the SOSTAC Model

Utilizing the SOSTAC model offers numerous benefits to businesses and organizations:

  1. Clear Direction: It provides a clear and defined direction for marketing efforts, reducing ambiguity and ensuring that everyone is on the same page.
  2. Alignment with Goals: Marketing plans developed using the SOSTAC model are closely aligned with the organization’s strategic goals, increasing the likelihood of success.
  3. Measurable Results: The model encourages the establishment of measurable objectives, allowing for the quantification of marketing outcomes.
  4. Efficient Resource Allocation: It helps organizations allocate resources effectively by focusing on tactics that are most likely to achieve desired results.
  5. Adaptability: The regular monitoring and control stages allow for adaptability, enabling organizations to respond to changes in the market or business environment.
  6. Improved Decision Making: Data-driven decision making is a core principle of the model, leading to more informed and effective marketing strategies.

Challenges in Implementing the SOSTAC Model

While the SOSTAC model offers many advantages, it is not without challenges:

  1. Data Availability: Conducting a comprehensive situation analysis may be challenging if relevant data is not readily available.
  2. Resource Constraints: Developing and executing a marketing plan can be resource-intensive, and smaller organizations with limited budgets may face constraints.
  3. Market Volatility: Rapid changes in the market or unforeseen events can disrupt marketing plans, requiring adjustments and adaptability.
  4. Complexity: The model’s structured approach can be seen as overly complex for some organizations, particularly smaller ones.
  5. Time-Consuming: Developing a detailed marketing plan using the SOSTAC model can be time-consuming, particularly if extensive research is required.

Real-World Applications of the SOSTAC Model

The SOSTAC model has been widely applied in various industries and sectors, including:

  1. Digital Marketing: Digital marketers use the SOSTAC model to develop comprehensive online marketing strategies that encompass SEO, content marketing, social media, email marketing, and more.
  2. Product Launches: Businesses often use the model to plan and execute product launches, ensuring that marketing efforts align with product objectives and target audiences.
  3. Market Entry: Organizations entering new markets can benefit from the SOSTAC model by conducting in-depth market analysis and creating effective market entry strategies.
  4. Campaign Planning: Marketers use the model to plan and execute marketing campaigns, coordinating various tactics to achieve campaign objectives.
  5. Brand Development: Companies seeking to build or reposition their brands use the SOSTAC model to craft brand strategies that resonate with their target audiences.
  6. Nonprofit Marketing: Nonprofit organizations use the model to develop marketing plans for fundraising, donor engagement, and advocacy efforts.

Practical Tips for Implementing the SOSTAC Model

Here are some practical tips for organizations looking to implement the SOSTAC model effectively:

  1. Invest in Research: Conduct thorough research during the situation analysis stage to gather relevant data and insights about the market, competitors, and customer behavior.
  2. Set SMART Objectives: Ensure that marketing objectives are specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART).
  3. Segment Your Audience: Identify and segment your target audience to tailor your marketing strategies and tactics more effectively.
  4. Integrate Channels: Consider how different marketing channels and tactics can work together to achieve your objectives. Integration can enhance the impact of your marketing efforts.
  5. Regularly Monitor and Evaluate: Continuously monitor key performance indicators and evaluate the effectiveness of your marketing plan. Be prepared to make adjustments as needed.
  6. Communication and Collaboration: Foster communication and collaboration among marketing team members and other relevant departments to ensure a unified approach.


The SOSTAC model is a valuable tool for organizations seeking to develop and execute effective marketing plans. It offers a structured and comprehensive approach that emphasizes data-driven decision making, alignment with strategic goals, and adaptability. While challenges may arise during its implementation, the benefits of clarity, measurement, and efficiency make it a valuable framework for marketing success. By following the principles and practical tips outlined in this guide, organizations can leverage the SOSTAC model to achieve their marketing objectives and drive business growth.

Key Highlights of the SOSTAC Model:

  • Structured Planning: SOSTAC provides a step-by-step framework for developing comprehensive marketing plans.
  • 360-Degree Analysis: Emphasizes thorough situation analysis to understand market dynamics and customer behavior.
  • Strategic Alignment: Ensures marketing objectives are aligned with broader business goals and strategies.
  • Clear Execution: Helps translate strategies into actionable tactics, guiding teams through implementation.
  • Performance Evaluation: Incorporates control and measurement stages to assess campaign effectiveness.
  • Adaptive Approach: Allows flexibility for adjustments based on real-time market feedback.
  • Communication Enhancement: Facilitates effective communication among team members and stakeholders.
  • Scalability: Applicable to various industries and business sizes, promoting scalable planning.
  • Goal Measurement: Emphasizes setting measurable objectives for tracking progress and success.
  • Integrated Marketing: Enables integration of digital, traditional, and other marketing channels for optimal impact.

Connected Agile & Lean Frameworks


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.


AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Andon System

The andon system alerts managerial, maintenance, or other staff of a production process problem. The alert itself can be activated manually with a button or pull cord, but it can also be activated automatically by production equipment. Most Andon boards utilize three colored lights similar to a traffic signal: green (no errors), yellow or amber (problem identified, or quality check needed), and red (production stopped due to unidentified issue).

Bimodal Portfolio Management

Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.


DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

eXtreme Programming

eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

Feature-Driven Development

Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

Gemba Walk

A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of lean management. It describes the personal observation of work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the real place”, or in business, “the place where value is created”. The Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System of lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management executives to leave their offices and see where the real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.

GIST Planning

GIST Planning is a relatively easy and lightweight agile approach to product planning that favors autonomous working. GIST Planning is a lean and agile methodology that was created by former Google product manager Itamar Gilad. GIST Planning seeks to address this situation by creating lightweight plans that are responsive and adaptable to change. GIST Planning also improves team velocity, autonomy, and alignment by reducing the pervasive influence of management. It consists of four blocks: goals, ideas, step-projects, and tasks.

ICE Scoring

The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.

Minimum Viable Product

As pointed out by Eric Ries, a minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort through a cycle of build, measure, learn; that is the foundation of the lean startup methodology.

Leaner MVP

A leaner MVP is the evolution of the MPV approach. Where the market risk is validated before anything else


Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.


Jidoka was first used in 1896 by Sakichi Toyoda, who invented a textile loom that would stop automatically when it encountered a defective thread. Jidoka is a Japanese term used in lean manufacturing. The term describes a scenario where machines cease operating without human intervention when a problem or defect is discovered.

PDCA Cycle

The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle was first proposed by American physicist and engineer Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. The PDCA cycle is a continuous process and product improvement method and an essential component of the lean manufacturing philosophy.

Rational Unified Process

Rational unified process (RUP) is an agile software development methodology that breaks the project life cycle down into four distinct phases.

Rapid Application Development

RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Retrospective Analysis

Retrospective analyses are held after a project to determine what worked well and what did not. They are also conducted at the end of an iteration in Agile project management. Agile practitioners call these meetings retrospectives or retros. They are an effective way to check the pulse of a project team, reflect on the work performed to date, and reach a consensus on how to tackle the next sprint cycle. These are the five stages of a retrospective analysis for effective Agile project management: set the stage, gather the data, generate insights, decide on the next steps, and close the retrospective.

Scaled Agile

Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.


The SMED (single minute exchange of die) method is a lean production framework to reduce waste and increase production efficiency. The SMED method is a framework for reducing the time associated with completing an equipment changeover.

Spotify Model

The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.


Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.


Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.


Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating errors or defects in a product, service, or process. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola as a management approach based on quality fundamentals in the early 1980s. A decade later, it was popularized by General Electric who estimated that the methodology saved them $12 billion in the first five years of operation.

Stretch Objectives

Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.

Toyota Production System

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the Toyota Motor Corporation in the 1940s and 50s, the Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.

Total Quality Management

The Total Quality Management (TQM) framework is a technique based on the premise that employees continuously work on their ability to provide value to customers. Importantly, the word “total” means that all employees are involved in the process – regardless of whether they work in development, production, or fulfillment.


The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

Read Also: Continuous InnovationAgile MethodologyLean StartupBusiness Model InnovationProject Management.

Read Next: Agile Methodology, Lean Methodology, Agile Project Management, Scrum, Kanban, Six Sigma.

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