The Project Management Guide For The Agile Executive

Project management is critical to any successful business venture, especially within startups. As the project manager, you will be responsible for developing and executing plans that ensure goals are met efficiently. You must also assess risks and anticipate issues to ensure projects move forward without interruption.

What Is Project Management?

Project management is the process of organizing and managing resources to achieve a specific goal.

It involves planning, scheduling, coordinating, controlling, and monitoring activities to ensure that goals are met on time and within budget.

Project managers must be able to manage multiple tasks simultaneously while ensuring quality control throughout the project lifecycle.

The primary objective of project management is to deliver successful projects (by aligning technical teams to business goals) within specified timelines while meeting customer requirements.

Benefits of Project Management

The benefits of effective project management include:

  • Improved efficiency and cost savings due to better resource utilization; increased productivity due to more accurate forecasting;
  • Reduced risk associated with unforeseen events; improved communication between stakeholders; greater customer satisfaction due to timely delivery;
  • Higher morale among team members resulting from clear expectations; better decision-making based on real-time data analysis;
  • Faster problem resolution via proactive risk mitigation strategies;
  • Enhanced visibility into progress made towards goals set forth at the beginning of the project life cycle.

Responsibilities of a Project Manager

Project management is a complex and multi-faceted job requiring various skills.

It involves planning, organizing, and controlling resources and activities to meet specific goals.

Project managers are responsible for successfully completing projects within budget and on time.

Planning and Scheduling Projects: A project manager must plan the project in detail before beginning any work.

This includes setting timelines, determining tasks needed to complete the project, assigning roles to team members, allocating resources such as materials or personnel, and establishing milestones along the way.

The project manager must also create contingency plans in case something goes wrong during the course of the project.

Establishing Goals and Objectives

The primary goal of a project manager is to ensure that objectives are met within an agreed upon timeline while staying within budget constraints.

To do this they need to set clear expectations with stakeholders at every stage of development so everyone involved understands what needs to be done when it needs to be done by whom it needs to be done by etcetera.

They should also keep track of progress towards these goals throughout each phase so adjustments can be made if necessary before deadlines are missed or budgets exceeded.

Managing Resources & Budgets

Project managers need strong financial acumen in order manage resources effectively while staying within budget constraints; this includes understanding how much money is available for each task as well as tracking expenses throughout each phase of development so there aren’t any surprises down the line when costs exceed estimates or deadlines slip due lack proper funding allocation upfront .

Additionally they will often negotiate contracts with vendors who provide goods/services related directly or indirectly with their projects which require further financial oversight from them too .

Monitoring Progress & Quality Control

As part of their role ,project managers must monitor progress closely against predetermined milestones ;this means regularly checking in with team members ,clients ,and other stakeholders involved in order make sure everything stays on track .

They may also conduct regular quality assurance checks along way ensure deliverables meet standards set out initially.

In some cases they might even have direct responsibility overseeing quality control processes like testing new products prior launch date .

Lastly, one of the most important responsibilities PMs have is managing risks associated with their projects.

This includes identifying potential issues ahead of time and coming up with solutions to prevent them from occurring altogether whenever possible.

When problems do arise however, then it is up to PMs to use their problem solving skills to come up with creative resolutions in order to get things back on track quickly without compromising the overall success and end product itself.

A successful project manager is responsible for planning, scheduling, and budgeting projects to ensure that goals and objectives are met. In the next section, we will discuss how to monitor progress and maintain quality control.

Pros and Cons of Being a Project Manager

Being a project manager can be both rewarding and challenging. It requires an individual to have the right skills, knowledge, and experience in order to succeed. Understanding the pros and cons of being a project manager is essential for anyone considering this role within a startup environment.

Pros of Being a Project Manager

Project managers are responsible for leading teams towards successful completion of projects on time and within budget.

This position offers many benefits such as increased job satisfaction due to having control over how tasks are completed, gaining valuable experience in leadership roles, developing problem-solving skills, improving communication abilities with stakeholders, and building relationships with team members.

Additionally, PMs often receive higher salaries than other positions due to their specialized knowledge and expertise in managing complex projects.

Cons of Being a Project Manager

The biggest challenge that comes with being a project manager is dealing with the pressure associated with meeting deadlines while ensuring quality standards are met or exceeded.

In addition to this stressor there is also the risk of failure if goals aren’t achieved which could lead to negative feedback from clients or stakeholders who may not understand why certain objectives weren’t reached on time or within budget parameters set out by them initially.

Other challenges include managing difficult personalities among team members or working under tight budgets where resources must be allocated carefully so that all aspects of the project can still be completed successfully without sacrificing quality standards along the way.

How To Overcome The Challenges As A PM?

In order to overcome these challenges, it is important for project managers (PMs) to stay organized.

This can be done by creating detailed plans before beginning any work on projects, setting realistic timelines, delegating tasks appropriately, communicating regularly with team members about progress updates, maintaining open lines of communication between themselves and stakeholders, monitoring progress closely throughout each stage, staying up-to-date on industry trends related directly or indirectly to their field and seeking help when needed from mentors/colleagues/experts outside their organization.

By following these strategies PMs will be able to ensure that projects remain on track while providing support during times when things do not go according planed; this will help prevent potential failures down the line.

Being a project manager in a startup can be both challenging and rewarding. Understanding the pros and cons of this role is essential to succeeding in it. Next, we will look at how to overcome the challenges as a PM.

Examples of Different Types of Projects Managed by PMs

Construction projects

Construction projects are some of the most common types of projects managed by PMs.

These involve overseeing the planning, design, construction, and maintenance of buildings or other structures such as roads or bridges.

The PM must ensure that all stakeholders involved in the project understand their roles and responsibilities and that deadlines are met within budget.

IT projects

IT projects also require strong project management skills to be successful.

This type of project typically involves developing software applications for specific business needs such as customer relationship management (CRM) systems or enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems.

The PM must have an understanding of both technology and business processes to ensure that these solutions meet user requirements while staying on track with timeframes and budgets set out at the beginning of the project.

Business process improvement (BPI)

Business process improvement (BPI) involves the evaluation and subsequent improvement of business processes. Business process improvement seeks to improve business processes, defined as any series of repeated tasks that create value for a customer, sponsor, or stakeholder. During BPI, each process is mapped out to identify inefficiencies. Then, the process undergoes a redesign so that it can meet new standards or performance benchmarks.

Business process improvement (BPI) projects are another type often overseen by a PM.

BPI initiatives focus on streamlining existing processes to improve efficiency, reduce costs, increase customer satisfaction levels, or otherwise benefit an organization’s bottom line performance metrics.

A good PM will have experience analyzing current processes to identify areas for improvement before designing new ones which will address those issues effectively without introducing further complications into operations down the road.

Finally, many organizations now rely heavily on data-driven decision making which requires managing complex data science projects from start to finish.

This process includes collecting raw data, performing analysis and interpretation, implementing the results and optimizing them across various departments within an organization’s infrastructure.

Therefore, it is essential for a Project Manager working in this field to possess technical knowledge related not only to database architecture but also statistical modelling techniques so they can effectively guide teams towards desired outcomes.

Project managers have the skills and experience to successfully manage a variety of projects, from construction to IT and business process improvement. Next, we’ll look at the essential components of project management.

Qualifications Needed to Become a Successful PM

A project manager must have at least a bachelor’s degree in business or a related field such as engineering or computer science.

An MBA or other advanced degree may also be beneficial depending on the type of projects being managed.

Additionally, knowledge of project management software and tools can help ensure success.

To become an effective project manager within a startup environment, one must possess strong organizational skills and attention to detail as well as excellent communication abilities with both internal teams and external stakeholders.

The ability to think strategically while managing multiple tasks simultaneously is essential when working within tight deadlines and budgets that are common among startups.

Problem-solving capabilities are also important since unexpected issues often arise during projects which require quick solutions from the PM team leader.

Obtaining professional certification can demonstrate expertise in project management principles and processes, making you more attractive to potential employers when applying for jobs within startups.

Popular certifications include:

  • The Project Management Professional (PMP) from the Project Management Institute (PMI),
  • Certified Associate In Project Management (CAPM) from PMI,
  • Agile Certified Practitioner (ACP) from Scrum Alliance,
  • And PRINCE2 Foundation & Practitioner Certification from AXELOS Global Best Practice Solutions Ltd.

Each certification has its own requirements so it is important to research each one before deciding which best suits your needs based on your experience level and desired career path within project management roles at startups.

By having the right education, skills and certifications for project management in startups, you can be well-equipped to take on the challenges of managing projects and helping a startup reach its goals.

What are the five steps of project management?

  • Define Goals: Establish clear and measurable objectives for the project that align with the organization’s strategic goals.
  • Create a Plan: Develop a detailed plan of action to ensure all tasks are completed on time and within budget.
  • Monitor Progress: Track progress regularly to identify potential issues, risks, or delays before they become problems.
  • Manage Resources: Allocate resources efficiently to maximize productivity and minimize costs while ensuring quality standards are met.
  • Communicate Effectively: Foster open communication between team members and stakeholders throughout the life cycle of the project in order to maintain transparency and trust in decision-making processes.

What are the four types of project management?

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

This methodology focuses on delivering projects in an iterative and incremental manner, with a focus on flexibility and collaboration.

It is best suited for projects that require frequent changes or have uncertain requirements.

Waterfall Project Management

The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

This approach follows a linear process from planning to execution, with each phase of the project completed before moving onto the next one.

It works well for large-scale projects where all requirements are known upfront and there is little room for change during the course of the project.

Scrum Project Management

Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.

This method involves breaking down complex tasks into smaller chunks that can be worked on by teams in short sprints (usually two weeks).

The goal is to deliver working products quickly while still allowing time for feedback and improvement along the way.

Kanban Project Management

Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.

This system uses visual boards to track progress towards goals, making it easier to identify bottlenecks and prioritize tasks accordingly.

It encourages continuous improvement through regular reviews of processes as well as continual adaptation based on customer feedback or changing circumstances within the organization

Key Takeaways

  • In conclusion, project management is a complex and rewarding field that requires dedication and commitment.
  • It is important to understand the responsibilities of a PM in order to be successful in this role.
  • Additionally, it is essential for those interested in becoming a PM within startups to have the necessary qualifications such as education requirements, skillset, and professional certifications.
  • With these tools at hand, project managers can help startups grow and succeed by effectively managing projects from start to finish.

Read Next: Portfolio Management, Program Management, Product Management, Project Management.

FourWeekMBA Business Toolbox

Business Engineering


Tech Business Model Template

A tech business model is made of four main components: value model (value propositions, missionvision), technological model (R&D management), distribution model (sales and marketing organizational structure), and financial model (revenue modeling, cost structure, profitability and cash generation/management). Those elements coming together can serve as the basis to build a solid tech business model.

Web3 Business Model Template

A Blockchain Business Model according to the FourWeekMBA framework is made of four main components: Value Model (Core Philosophy, Core Values and Value Propositions for the key stakeholders), Blockchain Model (Protocol Rules, Network Shape and Applications Layer/Ecosystem), Distribution Model (the key channels amplifying the protocol and its communities), and the Economic Model (the dynamics/incentives through which protocol players make money). Those elements coming together can serve as the basis to build and analyze a solid Blockchain Business Model.

Asymmetric Business Models

In an asymmetric business model, the organization doesn’t monetize the user directly, but it leverages the data users provide coupled with technology, thus have a key customer pay to sustain the core asset. For example, Google makes money by leveraging users’ data, combined with its algorithms sold to advertisers for visibility.

Business Competition

In a business world driven by technology and digitalization, competition is much more fluid, as innovation becomes a bottom-up approach that can come from anywhere. Thus, making it much harder to define the boundaries of existing markets. Therefore, a proper business competition analysis looks at customer, technology, distribution, and financial model overlaps. While at the same time looking at future potential intersections among industries that in the short-term seem unrelated.

Technological Modeling

Technological modeling is a discipline to provide the basis for companies to sustain innovation, thus developing incremental products. While also looking at breakthrough innovative products that can pave the way for long-term success. In a sort of Barbell Strategy, technological modeling suggests having a two-sided approach, on the one hand, to keep sustaining continuous innovation as a core part of the business model. On the other hand, it places bets on future developments that have the potential to break through and take a leap forward.

Transitional Business Models

A transitional business model is used by companies to enter a market (usually a niche) to gain initial traction and prove the idea is sound. The transitional business model helps the company secure the needed capital while having a reality check. It helps shape the long-term vision and a scalable business model.

Minimum Viable Audience

The minimum viable audience (MVA) represents the smallest possible audience that can sustain your business as you get it started from a microniche (the smallest subset of a market). The main aspect of the MVA is to zoom into existing markets to find those people which needs are unmet by existing players.

Business Scaling

Business scaling is the process of transformation of a business as the product is validated by wider and wider market segments. Business scaling is about creating traction for a product that fits a small market segment. As the product is validated it becomes critical to build a viable business model. And as the product is offered at wider and wider market segments, it’s important to align product, business model, and organizational design, to enable wider and wider scale.

Market Expansion Theory

The market expansion consists in providing a product or service to a broader portion of an existing market or perhaps expanding that market. Or yet, market expansions can be about creating a whole new market. At each step, as a result, a company scales together with the market covered.



Asymmetric Betting


Growth Matrix

In the FourWeekMBA growth matrix, you can apply growth for existing customers by tackling the same problems (gain mode). Or by tackling existing problems, for new customers (expand mode). Or by tackling new problems for existing customers (extend mode). Or perhaps by tackling whole new problems for new customers (reinvent mode).

Revenue Streams Matrix

In the FourWeekMBA Revenue Streams Matrix, revenue streams are classified according to the kind of interactions the business has with its key customers. The first dimension is the “Frequency” of interaction with the key customer. As the second dimension, there is the “Ownership” of the interaction with the key customer.

Revenue Modeling

Revenue model patterns are a way for companies to monetize their business models. A revenue model pattern is a crucial building block of a business model because it informs how the company will generate short-term financial resources to invest back into the business. Thus, the way a company makes money will also influence its overall business model.

Pricing Strategies

A pricing strategy or model helps companies find the pricing formula in fit with their business models. Thus aligning the customer needs with the product type while trying to enable profitability for the company. A good pricing strategy aligns the customer with the company’s long term financial sustainability to build a solid business model.

Connected Agile Frameworks


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.


AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Bimodal Portfolio Management

Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.


DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

Feature-Driven Development

Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

eXtreme Programming

eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

ICE Scoring

The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.


Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.

Rapid Application Development

RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Scaled Agile

Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.

Spotify Model

The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.


Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.


Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.


Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Stretch Objectives

Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.


The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

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