Critical chain project management was created by business management expert Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in 1997. It is based on the theory of constraints (TOC), a similar methodology also created by Goldratt focusing on the most important limiting factor in achieving a goal. Critical chain project management (CCPM) is an approach that organizes tasks and resources to realize the most efficient path to project completion.
|Methodology Overview||Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) is a project management methodology and approach developed by Eliyahu M. Goldratt. It is designed to improve project efficiency, reduce project durations, and enhance the delivery of projects on time and within budget. CCPM is rooted in the Theory of Constraints (TOC) and focuses on identifying and managing the critical resources and tasks that constrain project progress. It seeks to eliminate common project management issues, such as delays, scope changes, and resource conflicts.|
|Key Principles||CCPM is guided by several key principles:|
1. Identifying Critical Chain: Determine the sequence of tasks or activities that form the critical chain, which represents the longest path through the project.
2. Buffer Management: Instead of adding safety time to individual tasks, CCPM uses buffers at strategic points in the project to protect against uncertainty and variability.
3. Resource Management: Ensure that project resources are not overcommitted and are available when needed for critical tasks.
4. Focusing on Constraints: Emphasize managing constraints and bottlenecks to optimize project flow.
5. Project Priority: Projects are prioritized based on their strategic importance and alignment with organizational goals.
|Buffer Types||CCPM employs three types of buffers: |
1. Project Buffer: Placed at the end of the project, it protects the overall project duration from uncertainties.
2. Feeding Buffer: Placed before tasks on the critical chain that feed into the project buffer, it ensures that critical tasks don’t delay the project.
3. Resource Buffer: Allocates extra resources to critical tasks to prevent resource shortages from causing delays.
|Applications||CCPM is applicable to a wide range of industries and projects, including manufacturing, construction, software development, and product design. It is particularly effective for projects with high complexity, multiple dependencies, and uncertain timelines.|
|Benefits||CCPM offers several benefits: |
1. Improved Project Completion: Projects are more likely to be completed on time or even ahead of schedule.
2. Resource Optimization: Efficient use of resources reduces overallocation and improves resource utilization.
3. Predictability: Provides better predictability for project timelines and outcomes.
4. Enhanced Collaboration: Promotes collaboration among project teams and stakeholders.
5. Reduced Project Costs: Fewer delays and rework result in cost savings.
|Challenges||Implementing CCPM can pose challenges related to changing traditional project management practices, resistance to adopting new methods, and the need for a cultural shift within organizations. It requires effective change management and buy-in from project teams and stakeholders.|
Understanding critical chain project management
Fundamentally, critical chain project management is a project planning strategy with an emphasis on resolving project resource constraints. Indeed, most project bottlenecks are caused by a lack of people, money, equipment, or physical space.
In a project plan, the critical chain describes a sequence of resource-dependent tasks that prevent a project from being completed in a shorter time.
To determine the critical chain, the business must start with the critical path – or the longest sequence of tasks that need to be completed to successfully conclude a project.
Resources are then assigned to the critical path which in turn highlights resource constraints. This resource-constrained critical path is the critical chain.
Why is critical chain project management important?
CCPM identifies required resources and any pre-existing constraints to determine the most efficient manner for completing a project. Here, efficiency is defined as the highest number of tasks the business can complete while operating at its maximum capacity.
Using CCPM, dependencies between tasks and resources are taken into account when planning projects. This allows project managers to navigate uncertainty and unforeseen circumstances by:
Determining resource constraints
Determining resource constraints invariably related to employees, workstations, materials, and so forth.
Which sets of activities, if delayed, have the potential to extend the end date of the project?
Planning a task schedule backward
Planning a task schedule backward from the completion date to ensure tasks are done as required.
This creates a sense of urgency in the project team and motivates them to realize their full potential.
Implementing buffers to insulate the project
Implementing buffers to insulate the project.
As a general rule, the bigger the risk or degree of uncertainty, the bigger the buffer needs to be.
Eliminating multitasking – when employees constantly switch between tasks, a productivity decrease causes task durations to increase.
Monitoring the buffers
Monitoring the buffers, checking for completed milestones, and ensuring the project is progressing according to plan.
A detailed project model should also be shared with the entire project team to measure progress.
CCPM also seeks to address a major disadvantage of critical path project management (CPM), which does not consider the impact of finite project resources and real-life constraints or bottlenecks.
The role of buffers in critical chain project management
Critical chain project management uses buffers to reduce uncertainty and ensure tasks are completed on time.
The buffer itself is a strategic safeguard inserted into the critical chain to maintain efficient project progression.
There are three types of buffers:
These buffers are inserted between the last task and the completion date of the project.
In this way, a project buffer absorbs critical chain delays without impacting the completion date.
These are placed between the last task on a non-critical (feeding) chain and the critical chain.
This ensures any delays on a feeding chain do not impact the critical chain.
Or any buffer placed on the critical chain to ensure the appropriate resources are available when required.
These resources are referred to as critical resources.
- Critical chain project management is an approach that organizes tasks and resources to realize the most efficient path to project completion.
- Critical chain project management has an emphasis on resolving project resource constraints. These are usually related to people, money, equipment, and physical space, among other things.
- Critical chain project management incorporates buffers to reduce uncertainty and increase efficiency. Buffers are inserted directly into the critical chain and come in three types: project buffers, feeding buffers, and resource buffers.
- Origin and Foundation:
- CCPM was developed by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt in 1997.
- It’s based on the Theory of Constraints (TOC), a methodology also created by Goldratt that focuses on identifying and overcoming limiting factors in achieving goals.
- Core Concept of CCPM:
- Critical Chain Definition:
- In a project plan, the critical chain is a sequence of tasks that are resource-dependent and prevent the project from being completed in a shorter time.
- It’s derived from the critical path, which is the longest sequence of tasks needed for project completion.
- Importance of CCPM:
- CCPM enhances project efficiency by optimizing the allocation of resources and considering their constraints.
- It focuses on completing the maximum number of tasks while operating at full capacity.
- CCPM Implementation Strategies:
- Determining Resource Constraints: Identifying limitations related to employees, workstations, materials, etc.
- Planning Task Schedule Backward: Working backward from the completion date to create a sense of urgency and motivate the team.
- Implementing Buffers: Introducing buffers to handle uncertainties, risks, and unexpected delays.
- Eliminating Multitasking: Minimizing task-switching to improve productivity and task duration.
- Monitoring Buffers: Regularly checking progress against milestones and adapting as needed.
- Addressing CPM Limitations:
- CCPM addresses shortcomings of Critical Path Project Management (CPM) by accounting for finite resources and real-world constraints.
- Role of Buffers in CCPM:
- Buffers are strategic safeguards inserted into the critical chain to manage uncertainties and ensure tasks are completed on time.
- There are three types of buffers:
- Project Buffers: Between the last task and the project completion date.
- Feeding Buffers: Between non-critical (feeding) chains and the critical chain.
- Resource Buffers: Placed on the critical chain to ensure critical resources are available as needed.
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