8D Problem Solving

The 8D Problem Solving methodology offers a structured approach with eight distinct disciplines to address complex issues, aiming to identify root causes, implement corrective actions, and prevent future problems. By leveraging data-driven analysis and cross-functional collaboration, it enables effective problem resolution and continuous improvement across industries.

Understanding 8D Problem Solving

The 8D problem-solving process is designed to address complex issues and provide a systematic approach for continuous improvement. The “8D” name comes from the eight disciplines or steps that guide the process. These disciplines provide a structured framework for teams to work together to identify the root causes of a problem, develop effective solutions, and prevent its recurrence.

The Eight Disciplines of 8D Problem Solving

Here are the eight disciplines that make up the 8D problem-solving process:

  1. D1 – Form a Team: The first step is to assemble a cross-functional team of individuals with expertise in the problem area. This team will be responsible for leading the problem-solving efforts.
  2. D2 – Describe the Problem: Clearly define the problem by providing a detailed description of the issue, including when and where it occurs, its impact on the organization, and any relevant data.
  3. D3 – Implement Containment Actions: In this stage, the team’s focus is on taking immediate actions to contain the problem and prevent it from affecting customers or causing further harm. This might involve temporary fixes or workarounds.
  4. D4 – Identify Root Causes: Conduct a thorough analysis to identify the root causes of the problem. Techniques such as the “5 Whys” or fishbone diagrams (Ishikawa diagrams) are often used to explore underlying issues.
  5. D5 – Develop and Verify Corrective Actions: Once the root causes are identified, the team develops corrective actions to address the problem. These actions should be based on data and analysis. Verification ensures that the proposed actions are likely to be effective.
  6. D6 – Implement Permanent Corrective Actions: This stage involves putting in place permanent corrective actions. These actions should address the root causes to prevent the problem from recurring. Implementation plans, responsibilities, and timelines are defined.
  7. D7 – Prevent Recurrence: Teams work on strategies to ensure the problem does not reoccur. This may include process changes, training, or additional quality control measures.
  8. D8 – Recognize Team Effort: In the final step, the team’s efforts are recognized and celebrated. Documentation of the entire process is important for learning and continuous improvement.

The PDCA Cycle in 8D Problem Solving

The 8D process aligns closely with the Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle, a framework for continuous improvement. The PDCA cycle consists of the following stages:

  • Plan: Identify the problem, gather data, and plan the problem-solving process.
  • Do: Implement the actions and solutions proposed in the 8D process.
  • Check: Verify the effectiveness of the actions taken. Did they solve the problem as expected?
  • Act: Standardize and document successful solutions, and implement changes to prevent the problem from occurring again.

Applications of 8D Problem Solving

The 8D problem-solving process can be applied to a wide range of issues and challenges within an organization. Some common applications include:

  1. Quality Improvement: Organizations often use 8D problem solving to improve product or service quality by addressing defects, deviations, or customer complaints.
  2. Process Optimization: Teams can apply the 8D process to optimize existing processes, reduce inefficiencies, and enhance productivity.
  3. Customer Complaint Resolution: When customers raise concerns or complaints, 8D problem solving helps identify the root causes and implement corrective actions to ensure customer satisfaction.
  4. Risk Management: Organizations can proactively use the 8D process to identify and mitigate risks, preventing potential issues from arising.
  5. Supplier Quality Improvement: Organizations work with suppliers to apply 8D problem solving to resolve quality issues in the supply chain, ensuring consistent product quality.
  6. Continuous Improvement: The 8D process supports a culture of continuous improvement by providing a structured framework for addressing problems and preventing their recurrence.

Benefits of 8D Problem Solving

Implementing the 8D problem-solving process offers several benefits to organizations:

  1. Structured Approach: The 8D process provides a structured and disciplined approach to problem solving, ensuring thorough analysis and effective solutions.
  2. Cross-Functional Collaboration: The involvement of cross-functional teams fosters collaboration and leverages diverse expertise to address complex issues.
  3. Prevention of Recurrence: By focusing on root causes and implementing permanent corrective actions, the 8D process helps prevent problems from happening again.
  4. Data-Driven Decision Making: Data and analysis play a central role in the 8D process, leading to informed decision making.
  5. Improved Quality: The process leads to improvements in product or service quality, enhancing customer satisfaction.
  6. Efficiency Gains: Through process optimization and the elimination of inefficiencies, organizations can realize cost savings and operational efficiencies.
  7. Risk Mitigation: Proactively addressing potential issues reduces the risk of larger problems or crises.

Implementing 8D Problem Solving

Successful implementation of the 8D problem-solving process requires careful planning and commitment. Here are key steps for organizations looking to adopt 8D problem solving:

  1. Training and Education: Ensure that team members receive training on the 8D process and related problem-solving tools and techniques.
  2. Select the Right Team: Assemble cross-functional teams with the necessary expertise and experience to address the specific problem.
  3. Define Roles and Responsibilities: Clearly define the roles and responsibilities of team members, including leaders and facilitators.
  4. Provide Resources: Allocate the necessary resources, including time and tools, to support the problem-solving efforts.
  5. Data Collection and Analysis: Gather relevant data and analyze it to understand the problem’s scope and root causes.
  6. Continuous Improvement: Encourage a culture of continuous improvement by regularly reviewing and updating the organization’s problem-solving processes.
  7. Document the Process: Proper documentation ensures that lessons learned are captured and can be applied in future problem-solving efforts.
  8. Celebrate Success: Recognize and celebrate the achievements of teams that successfully complete the 8D process.

Challenges in 8D Problem Solving

While the 8D problem-solving process offers numerous advantages, organizations may encounter challenges during its implementation:

  1. Resistance to Change: Team members or leaders may resist adopting new problem-solving methodologies, especially if they are accustomed to existing approaches.
  2. Resource Constraints: In some cases, organizations may lack the necessary resources, such as time or personnel, to dedicate to the 8D process.
  3. Complex Problems: Addressing highly complex issues may require extensive analysis and resources, posing challenges to timely resolution.
  4. Lack of Data: Inadequate or inaccurate data can hinder the problem-solving process and make it difficult to identify root causes.
  5. Ineffective Communication: Poor communication within cross-functional teams can lead to misunderstandings and hinder progress.

Real-World Examples of 8D Problem Solving

  1. Automotive Industry: Ford Motor Company, where the 8D process originated, continues to use it to address quality and manufacturing issues. Other automakers, such as Toyota and General Motors, have also adopted the methodology.
  2. Healthcare: Hospitals and healthcare organizations use 8D problem solving to improve patient care, reduce medical errors, and enhance operational efficiency.
  3. Manufacturing: Companies in the manufacturing sector apply 8D problem solving to optimize production processes, reduce defects, and enhance product quality.
  4. Aerospace: Aerospace manufacturers utilize the 8D process to address complex issues in aircraft design, production, and maintenance.

Key Highlights of 8D Problem Solving:

  • Structured Approach: 8D provides a step-by-step process for problem-solving, ensuring a comprehensive and organized approach.
  • Cross-Functional Collaboration: Involves experts from various departments, leveraging diverse perspectives for thorough analysis.
  • Data-Driven Analysis: Relies on data and evidence to identify root causes and validate corrective actions.
  • Root Cause Focus: Emphasizes addressing the underlying causes of problems, not just their symptoms.
  • Preventive Measures: Includes steps to prevent the recurrence of problems and enhance overall processes.
  • Continuous Improvement: Drives ongoing enhancement by identifying opportunities for process optimization.
  • Customer-Centric: Prioritizes issues affecting customers, ensuring their satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Team Recognition: Acknowledges the efforts of the cross-functional team, fostering a culture of collaboration and problem-solving.

Connected Agile & Lean Frameworks


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.


AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Andon System

The andon system alerts managerial, maintenance, or other staff of a production process problem. The alert itself can be activated manually with a button or pull cord, but it can also be activated automatically by production equipment. Most Andon boards utilize three colored lights similar to a traffic signal: green (no errors), yellow or amber (problem identified, or quality check needed), and red (production stopped due to unidentified issue).

Bimodal Portfolio Management

Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.


DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

eXtreme Programming

eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

Feature-Driven Development

Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

Gemba Walk

A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of lean management. It describes the personal observation of work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the real place”, or in business, “the place where value is created”. The Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System of lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management executives to leave their offices and see where the real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.

GIST Planning

GIST Planning is a relatively easy and lightweight agile approach to product planning that favors autonomous working. GIST Planning is a lean and agile methodology that was created by former Google product manager Itamar Gilad. GIST Planning seeks to address this situation by creating lightweight plans that are responsive and adaptable to change. GIST Planning also improves team velocity, autonomy, and alignment by reducing the pervasive influence of management. It consists of four blocks: goals, ideas, step-projects, and tasks.

ICE Scoring

The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.

Minimum Viable Product

As pointed out by Eric Ries, a minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort through a cycle of build, measure, learn; that is the foundation of the lean startup methodology.

Leaner MVP

A leaner MVP is the evolution of the MPV approach. Where the market risk is validated before anything else


Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.


Jidoka was first used in 1896 by Sakichi Toyoda, who invented a textile loom that would stop automatically when it encountered a defective thread. Jidoka is a Japanese term used in lean manufacturing. The term describes a scenario where machines cease operating without human intervention when a problem or defect is discovered.

PDCA Cycle

The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle was first proposed by American physicist and engineer Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. The PDCA cycle is a continuous process and product improvement method and an essential component of the lean manufacturing philosophy.

Rational Unified Process

Rational unified process (RUP) is an agile software development methodology that breaks the project life cycle down into four distinct phases.

Rapid Application Development

RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Retrospective Analysis

Retrospective analyses are held after a project to determine what worked well and what did not. They are also conducted at the end of an iteration in Agile project management. Agile practitioners call these meetings retrospectives or retros. They are an effective way to check the pulse of a project team, reflect on the work performed to date, and reach a consensus on how to tackle the next sprint cycle. These are the five stages of a retrospective analysis for effective Agile project management: set the stage, gather the data, generate insights, decide on the next steps, and close the retrospective.

Scaled Agile

Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.


The SMED (single minute exchange of die) method is a lean production framework to reduce waste and increase production efficiency. The SMED method is a framework for reducing the time associated with completing an equipment changeover.

Spotify Model

The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.


Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.


Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.


Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating errors or defects in a product, service, or process. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola as a management approach based on quality fundamentals in the early 1980s. A decade later, it was popularized by General Electric who estimated that the methodology saved them $12 billion in the first five years of operation.

Stretch Objectives

Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.

Toyota Production System

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the Toyota Motor Corporation in the 1940s and 50s, the Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.

Total Quality Management

The Total Quality Management (TQM) framework is a technique based on the premise that employees continuously work on their ability to provide value to customers. Importantly, the word “total” means that all employees are involved in the process – regardless of whether they work in development, production, or fulfillment.


The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

Read Also: Continuous InnovationAgile MethodologyLean StartupBusiness Model InnovationProject Management.

Read Next: Agile Methodology, Lean Methodology, Agile Project Management, Scrum, Kanban, Six Sigma.

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