Shitsuke, the final step of the 5S Methodology, emphasizes maintaining discipline, standards, and ongoing improvement. By embedding disciplined practices in the culture, it ensures long-term success and employee engagement. Challenges include cultural shifts, but the benefits are sustained improvements and prevention of regression in various sectors like manufacturing and healthcare.

ElementDescriptionExplanationImplicationsExamplesApplication in 5S
Sort (Seiri)The first step in the 5S System, focusing on eliminating unnecessary items and clutter from the workspace.Sort involves systematically reviewing items in the workspace, identifying what is essential, and removing what is not. The goal is to create an organized and efficient environment.Implications include improved organization, reduced waste, and increased productivity. It helps in streamlining processes and making it easier to locate necessary items.In an office setting, employees can sort through documents and discard obsolete files. In manufacturing, excess inventory or equipment can be identified and removed.Creating a Clutter-Free Workspace
Set in Order (Seiton)The second step, arranging essential items and tools in an organized manner for easy access and retrieval.Set in Order involves designing a logical layout for items, creating designated storage spaces, and labeling everything clearly. This step promotes efficiency and minimizes time wasted searching for items.Implications include reduced searching time, increased efficiency, and better utilization of space. It contributes to a safer and more comfortable working environment.In a warehouse, items can be arranged in a way that minimizes travel time. In an office, files can be stored in labeled folders within cabinets.Efficient and Organized Layout
Shine (Seiso)The third step, emphasizing cleanliness and regular maintenance to keep the workspace tidy and free from dirt or defects.Shine involves cleaning and inspecting the workspace to identify and address issues promptly. It ensures that the workplace remains in good condition and minimizes the chances of equipment breakdowns.Implications include a safer and healthier work environment, improved equipment longevity, and increased employee morale. Regular cleaning and maintenance prevent accidents and costly repairs.In a manufacturing facility, machines are cleaned daily to prevent dust accumulation. In an office, cleaning schedules can be established for common areas and workstations.Maintaining a Clean and Safe Environment
Standardize (Seiketsu)The fourth step, creating standardized procedures and practices to sustain the improvements made during the previous steps.Standardize involves documenting the processes and procedures developed in the earlier steps and ensuring that everyone follows them consistently. This step prevents the workspace from returning to its previous state of disarray.Implications include long-term sustainability, consistency, and ease of training new employees. Standardized procedures reduce the chances of reverting to old habits and help maintain the improvements achieved.In a healthcare setting, protocols can be established for sanitizing equipment. In an office, guidelines can be created for filing and document management.Establishing and Documenting Best Practices
Sustain (Shitsuke)The fifth and final step, focusing on continuous improvement and maintaining the 5S principles as an integral part of the workplace culture.Sustain involves fostering a culture of continuous improvement, where employees are committed to upholding the 5S principles over the long term. Regular audits and training sessions help ensure that the improvements remain in place.Implications include ongoing efficiency, adaptability to change, and a culture of excellence. Sustaining the 5S principles requires commitment from all levels of the organization and is essential for achieving lasting benefits.In manufacturing, regular 5S audits can be conducted to assess compliance. In an office, periodic training sessions can be held to reinforce the importance of organization and cleanliness.Building a Culture of Continuous Improvement

Introduction to Shitsuke (Sustain)

Shitsuke is the final step in the 5S methodology, which originated in Japan as a tool for achieving workplace organization, efficiency, and waste reduction. The term “Shitsuke” can be translated to mean “sustain” or “maintain” and embodies the idea of making continuous improvement a part of the organization’s culture. It is about ensuring that the improvements achieved through the first four steps of 5S become ingrained in daily work habits and are upheld over the long term.

Key Principles of Shitsuke (Sustain):

Key Principles

  1. Cultural Transformation: Shitsuke involves a cultural shift within the organization, emphasizing discipline and continuous improvement as integral parts of the work culture.
  2. Ownership and Responsibility: It assigns ownership and responsibility for maintaining the improvements to all members of the organization, from leadership to frontline employees.
  3. Ongoing Monitoring: Regular monitoring and assessment are essential to ensure that standards and improvements are sustained.
  4. Flexibility: Shitsuke requires the ability to adapt to changing circumstances and to continuously seek opportunities for improvement.

Benefits of Shitsuke (Sustain)

The implementation of Shitsuke (Sustain) offers a wide range of benefits to organizations striving for continuous improvement and operational excellence:


  1. Consistency: Sustained improvements lead to consistent and reliable processes, reducing variation and errors.
  2. Cost Savings: Over time, the reduction of waste, increased efficiency, and streamlined processes result in significant cost savings.
  3. Quality Improvement: Consistently adhering to standards leads to improved product or service quality.
  4. Safety Enhancement: A culture of discipline and adherence to safety protocols reduces accidents and enhances workplace safety.
  5. Employee Engagement: Employees who are actively involved in sustaining improvements are more engaged and motivated.
  6. Customer Satisfaction: Delivering consistent quality and timely products or services enhances customer satisfaction.
  7. Competitive Advantage: Organizations that sustain improvements gain a competitive edge in the marketplace.

Implementation Strategies for Shitsuke (Sustain)

Implementing Shitsuke effectively involves a systematic approach and the involvement of all employees. Here are some strategies for successful Shitsuke implementation:

Implementation Strategies

  1. Leadership Commitment: Leadership must demonstrate a strong commitment to sustaining improvements and serve as role models for adherence to standards.
  2. Clear Communication: Communicate the importance of Shitsuke and the role of each employee in maintaining improvements.
  3. Training and Education: Provide training and education to employees on the standards and processes to be followed.
  4. Visual Management: Implement visual cues and reminders to help employees adhere to standards and monitor their own work.
  5. Regular Audits: Conduct regular audits and inspections to ensure that standards are being followed. Address any deviations promptly.
  6. Feedback and Recognition: Recognize and reward employees who consistently adhere to standards and contribute to sustaining improvements.
  7. Continuous Improvement: Encourage a culture of continuous improvement by seeking ways to make processes even better.
  8. Documented Procedures: Ensure that standard operating procedures (SOPs) are well-documented and readily accessible to all employees.

Real-World Examples of Shitsuke (Sustain)

Shitsuke (Sustain) is a principle widely applied in various industries and organizations to ensure that improvements are maintained and integrated into the daily work culture. Here are some real-world examples of how organizations have implemented Shitsuke:

Real-World Examples

  1. Manufacturing: In a manufacturing environment, Shitsuke involves regular equipment maintenance, adherence to safety protocols, and continuous monitoring of production processes to ensure they meet established standards.
  2. Healthcare: In healthcare settings, Shitsuke is crucial for maintaining hygiene standards, patient safety practices, and adherence to medical protocols to consistently deliver high-quality care.
  3. Retail: Retail stores use Shitsuke to ensure that visual merchandising standards, inventory management practices, and customer service protocols are consistently upheld.
  4. Office Environments: In office settings, Shitsuke includes maintaining an organized workspace, adhering to document management procedures, and following communication protocols to enhance productivity.
  5. Education: Educational institutions employ Shitsuke to ensure that teaching standards, curriculum delivery, and assessment practices are consistently followed to provide quality education.

Significance of Shitsuke (Sustain) in Continuous Improvement and Lean Manufacturing

Shitsuke (Sustain) plays a crucial role in the context of continuous improvement and lean manufacturing:

Significance in Continuous Improvement and Lean Manufacturing

  1. Cultural Transformation: Shitsuke represents the cultural transformation that organizations must undergo to make continuous improvement a way of life. It fosters a culture of discipline, ownership, and accountability.
  2. Long-Term Success: Without Shitsuke, the gains achieved through the earlier steps of 5S and lean initiatives may be short-lived. Sustaining improvements is essential for long-term success.
  3. Adaptation: Shitsuke encourages organizations to adapt to changing circumstances and continuously seek ways to improve. It prevents complacency and encourages innovation.
  4. Competitive Edge: Organizations that sustain improvements gain a competitive edge by consistently delivering high-quality products or services efficiently.
  5. Employee Engagement: Shitsuke actively engages employees in the improvement process, empowering them to take ownership of their work and contribute to the organization’s success.


Shitsuke (Sustain) is the final and most critical pillar of the 5S methodology and a cornerstone of lean manufacturing and continuous improvement. It represents the commitment to maintaining the improvements achieved through sorting, organizing, cleaning, and standardizing processes. By fostering a culture of discipline, adherence to standards, and continuous vigilance, organizations can ensure that the improvements become a lasting part of their daily operations.

The benefits of Shitsuke are significant, including increased consistency, cost savings, improved quality, enhanced safety, and higher employee engagement. Organizations that successfully implement Shitsuke gain a competitive advantage by delivering reliable products or services and continuously seeking ways to improve their processes.

Key Highlights

  • Cultural Integration: Shitsuke focuses on integrating disciplined practices into the organization’s culture to ensure long-term sustainability of improvements.
  • Self-Discipline: Employees take ownership and responsibility for adhering to established standards and procedures.
  • Continuous Improvement: While maintaining the organized state, Shitsuke encourages ongoing process enhancement and adaptability.
  • Long-Term Focus: It creates lasting change beyond specific initiatives, ensuring benefits endure over time.
  • Employee Engagement: Employees actively engage in the process, fostering a sense of ownership and commitment.
  • Preventing Regression: Sustained improvements prevent a return to old, less efficient habits.
  • Cultural Shift: Achieving a shift in mindset and behavior towards new practices presents a challenge.
  • Sustainability Challenge: Ensuring consistent adherence demands ongoing effort and vigilance.

Connected Agile & Lean Frameworks


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.


AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Andon System

The andon system alerts managerial, maintenance, or other staff of a production process problem. The alert itself can be activated manually with a button or pull cord, but it can also be activated automatically by production equipment. Most Andon boards utilize three colored lights similar to a traffic signal: green (no errors), yellow or amber (problem identified, or quality check needed), and red (production stopped due to unidentified issue).

Bimodal Portfolio Management

Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.


DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

eXtreme Programming

eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

Feature-Driven Development

Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

Gemba Walk

A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of lean management. It describes the personal observation of work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the real place”, or in business, “the place where value is created”. The Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System of lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management executives to leave their offices and see where the real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.

GIST Planning

GIST Planning is a relatively easy and lightweight agile approach to product planning that favors autonomous working. GIST Planning is a lean and agile methodology that was created by former Google product manager Itamar Gilad. GIST Planning seeks to address this situation by creating lightweight plans that are responsive and adaptable to change. GIST Planning also improves team velocity, autonomy, and alignment by reducing the pervasive influence of management. It consists of four blocks: goals, ideas, step-projects, and tasks.

ICE Scoring

The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.

Minimum Viable Product

As pointed out by Eric Ries, a minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort through a cycle of build, measure, learn; that is the foundation of the lean startup methodology.

Leaner MVP

A leaner MVP is the evolution of the MPV approach. Where the market risk is validated before anything else


Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.


Jidoka was first used in 1896 by Sakichi Toyoda, who invented a textile loom that would stop automatically when it encountered a defective thread. Jidoka is a Japanese term used in lean manufacturing. The term describes a scenario where machines cease operating without human intervention when a problem or defect is discovered.

PDCA Cycle

The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle was first proposed by American physicist and engineer Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. The PDCA cycle is a continuous process and product improvement method and an essential component of the lean manufacturing philosophy.

Rational Unified Process

Rational unified process (RUP) is an agile software development methodology that breaks the project life cycle down into four distinct phases.

Rapid Application Development

RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Retrospective Analysis

Retrospective analyses are held after a project to determine what worked well and what did not. They are also conducted at the end of an iteration in Agile project management. Agile practitioners call these meetings retrospectives or retros. They are an effective way to check the pulse of a project team, reflect on the work performed to date, and reach a consensus on how to tackle the next sprint cycle. These are the five stages of a retrospective analysis for effective Agile project management: set the stage, gather the data, generate insights, decide on the next steps, and close the retrospective.

Scaled Agile

Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.


The SMED (single minute exchange of die) method is a lean production framework to reduce waste and increase production efficiency. The SMED method is a framework for reducing the time associated with completing an equipment changeover.

Spotify Model

The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.


Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.


Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.


Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating errors or defects in a product, service, or process. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola as a management approach based on quality fundamentals in the early 1980s. A decade later, it was popularized by General Electric who estimated that the methodology saved them $12 billion in the first five years of operation.

Stretch Objectives

Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.

Toyota Production System

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the Toyota Motor Corporation in the 1940s and 50s, the Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.

Total Quality Management

The Total Quality Management (TQM) framework is a technique based on the premise that employees continuously work on their ability to provide value to customers. Importantly, the word “total” means that all employees are involved in the process – regardless of whether they work in development, production, or fulfillment.


The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

Read Also: Continuous InnovationAgile MethodologyLean StartupBusiness Model InnovationProject Management.

Read Next: Agile Methodology, Lean Methodology, Agile Project Management, Scrum, Kanban, Six Sigma.

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