Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix is a decision-making tool that helps evaluate and compare alternatives using specific criteria. It involves steps like identifying criteria, scoring alternatives, and analyzing results. It offers structured comparison, aligns with goals, and informs decisions. Challenges include subjectivity and handling complex criteria. It’s applied in product design and process improvement.

Pugh MatrixDescriptionAnalysisExamples
DefinitionA decision-making tool used to evaluate and compare multiple alternatives against a set of criteria or a reference solution.The Pugh Matrix helps organizations systematically assess options based on predefined criteria, promoting objective decision-making.Selecting a new supplier for raw materials, choosing a location for a new production facility.
PurposeTo identify the best alternative among a list of options by comparing their performance against specific criteria.The primary goal is to choose the most suitable option based on objective assessments and data, rather than subjective opinions.Selecting the most efficient design concept for a product, deciding on a software development framework.
Benefits– Provides a structured approach to decision-making. – Facilitates fair and transparent evaluations. – Reduces the impact of bias or personal preferences.– Helps organizations make informed choices with a clear rationale. – Streamlines the decision process by focusing on key criteria.Determining the most cost-effective marketing strategy, selecting the optimal vendor for IT services.
Steps1. Identify the criteria or attributes for evaluation. 2. Choose a reference solution or baseline. 3. Compare each alternative against the reference solution for each criterion. 4. Score the alternatives based on their performance. 5. Calculate the total score for each alternative. 6. Select the alternative with the highest total score.– Identify criteria that are relevant to the decision. – Assess each alternative objectively against the criteria. – Assign scores based on predefined scales (e.g., +1, 0, -1). – Sum the scores to determine the best alternative.Evaluating different car models based on factors like fuel efficiency, safety features, and price, selecting the most suitable candidate for a job based on qualifications and interview performance.

Introduction to the Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix is named after its creator, Stuart Pugh, a British engineer and professor renowned for his contributions to engineering design and decision-making methodologies. Pugh introduced this method in the mid-20th century as a way to systematically compare and evaluate design concepts or alternatives based on a set of predefined criteria.

Key principles of the Pugh Matrix include:

  1. Objective Decision-Making: The Pugh Matrix promotes an objective and systematic approach to decision-making by providing a structured framework for evaluating alternatives.
  2. Inclusion of Multiple Criteria: It considers multiple criteria or factors that are important in the decision-making process, ensuring a comprehensive assessment.
  3. Weighted Scoring: The Pugh Matrix allows for assigning weights to criteria, reflecting their relative importance in the decision. This weighting ensures that the most critical factors have a more significant impact on the final evaluation.
  4. Visual Representation: The results of the Pugh Matrix are typically presented in a tabular format, making it easy to compare and understand the evaluation outcomes.

Key Concepts in the Pugh Matrix

To effectively use the Pugh Matrix, it’s essential to understand key concepts and terminology associated with the methodology:

1. Design Alternatives:

Design alternatives, also known as options or concepts, represent the various choices or solutions under consideration. These could be different product designs, project approaches, or strategies.

2. Evaluation Criteria:

Evaluation criteria are the factors or characteristics used to assess the design alternatives. Criteria are typically selected based on their relevance to the decision at hand and may include performance, cost, safety, and other considerations.

3. Weighting:

Weighting involves assigning a numerical value to each evaluation criterion to indicate its relative importance. Criteria with higher weights have a more significant impact on the final evaluation.

4. Scoring:

Scoring entails evaluating each design alternative against the set of criteria and assigning scores or ratings to reflect how well each alternative performs with respect to each criterion.

5. Total Score:

The total score for each design alternative is calculated by summing the weighted scores for all criteria. This provides an overall measure of how well each alternative aligns with the decision criteria.

Methods for Using the Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix involves several steps and methods to evaluate and compare alternatives systematically. Here is a simplified outline of the process:

1. Define the Decision Problem:

Clearly define the decision problem or question that needs to be answered. Identify the design alternatives that will be evaluated.

2. Select Evaluation Criteria:

Identify and define the criteria that will be used to assess the design alternatives. These criteria should be relevant to the decision and can vary depending on the context.

3. Assign Weights to Criteria:

Assign weights to the criteria to reflect their relative importance. These weights can be determined through discussions with stakeholders or based on the organization’s priorities.

4. Develop a Scoring System:

Create a scoring system or scale for each criterion to facilitate the evaluation process. The scale may range from, for example, 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) or use a descriptive scale.

5. Evaluate Alternatives:

Using the scoring system and the predefined criteria, assess each design alternative and assign scores for each criterion.

6. Calculate Weighted Scores:

Multiply the scores for each criterion by their respective weights and calculate the weighted scores for each alternative.

7. Determine the Total Score:

Sum the weighted scores for each alternative to obtain a total score. The alternative with the highest total score is typically considered the best choice.

8. Analyze the Results:

Analyze the results to understand the strengths and weaknesses of each alternative and make an informed decision based on the total scores.

9. Sensitivity Analysis:

Perform sensitivity analysis by adjusting the weights of the criteria to explore how changes in criteria importance impact the ranking of alternatives.

10. Decision Documentation:

Document the decision process, including the criteria, weights, scores, and the rationale for selecting the chosen alternative.

Real-World Applications of the Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix is employed across various industries and domains to support decision-making and evaluate alternatives:

1. Product Development:

In product development, the Pugh Matrix helps engineers and designers assess different design concepts, materials, or features based on criteria like performance, cost, manufacturability, and user preferences.

2. Project Management:

Project managers use the Pugh Matrix to compare project plans, methodologies, or approaches to select the one that aligns best with project goals, resource constraints, and stakeholder requirements.

3. Supplier Selection:

Procurement professionals use the Pugh Matrix to evaluate and select suppliers or vendors based on criteria such as cost, quality, reliability, and delivery capabilities.

4. Process Improvement:

Organizations use the Pugh Matrix to evaluate and prioritize process improvement ideas or initiatives. It helps identify the most effective solutions for enhancing operational efficiency.

5. New Market Entry:

Companies considering entry into new markets assess various market entry strategies using the Pugh Matrix. Criteria may include market size, competition, regulatory requirements, and financial viability.

6. Risk Management:

Risk managers apply the Pugh Matrix to compare and prioritize risk mitigation strategies or options based on their potential impact on risk reduction and organizational objectives.

The Significance of the Pugh Matrix

The Pugh Matrix offers several significant advantages for organizations and decision-makers:

  1. Objective Decision-Making: It promotes an objective and systematic approach to evaluating alternatives, reducing the influence of personal biases and preferences.
  2. Comprehensive Assessment: The Pugh Matrix considers multiple criteria, ensuring that all relevant factors are taken into account during the decision-making process.
  3. Transparency: Results are presented in a clear and structured format, making it easy for stakeholders to understand and participate in the decision-making process.
  4. Risk Mitigation: By evaluating alternatives based on predefined criteria, the Pugh Matrix helps identify potential risks and uncertainties associated with each option.
  5. Informed Choices: Decision-makers can make well-informed choices that align with organizational goals, priorities, and constraints.
  6. Continuous Improvement: The Pugh Matrix can be used iteratively to revisit and refine decisions as new information becomes available or circumstances change.

Conclusion

The Pugh Matrix is a valuable tool for decision-makers seeking a structured and systematic approach to evaluating and comparing alternatives. Whether applied in product development, project management, procurement, or other decision contexts, the Pugh Matrix helps organizations make informed choices that align with their objectives and priorities. By considering multiple criteria and assigning weights, decision-makers can confidently select the most suitable alternative while reducing the influence of personal biases. As a result, the Pugh Matrix continues to play a significant role in enabling organizations to make effective and data-driven decisions in a wide range of industries and scenarios.

Examples:

StepsDescriptionExamples
1. Identify CriteriaBegin by identifying the specific criteria or attributes that are essential for evaluating the alternatives. These criteria should align with your decision-making objectives and goals.– Criteria for selecting a new supplier: cost, quality, reliability. – Criteria for choosing a location: accessibility, cost, workforce availability.
2. Choose Reference SolutionSelect a reference solution or baseline against which you will compare all other alternatives. The reference solution serves as a point of comparison for each criterion.– Reference solution for supplier selection: Current supplier’s performance. – Reference solution for location: Existing facility’s location and performance.
3. Compare AlternativesFor each criterion, compare and evaluate each alternative relative to the chosen reference solution. Assess how well each alternative performs in relation to the baseline.– Alternative suppliers’ cost compared to the current supplier’s cost. – Potential locations’ accessibility compared to the existing facility’s accessibility.
4. Score AlternativesAssign scores to each alternative based on their performance compared to the reference solution for each criterion. Use a predefined scoring system (e.g., +1, 0, -1) for consistency.– Supplier A: Cost +1, Quality -1, Reliability 0. – Location B: Accessibility +1, Cost -1, Workforce Availability 0.
5. Calculate Total ScoresCalculate the total score for each alternative by summing the scores assigned to them across all criteria. The total score reflects how well each alternative meets the overall evaluation criteria.– Supplier A total score: +1 – 1 + 0 = 0. – Location B total score: +1 – 1 + 0 = 0.
6. Select Best AlternativeChoose the alternative with the highest total score as the best option. This alternative is the one that best aligns with your criteria and objectives and is the most suitable choice based on the evaluation.– Supplier A is selected as the best alternative for cost reasons. – Location B is chosen for its superior accessibility.
  • Product Design: Selecting design concepts based on attributes.
  • Process Improvement: Choosing effective improvement approaches.

Key Highlights of the Pugh Matrix:

  • Structured Evaluation: The Pugh Matrix provides a structured approach to evaluating and comparing multiple alternatives systematically.
  • Objective Comparison: It allows for objective comparison by assigning scores to alternatives based on predefined criteria.
  • Criteria Alignment: The tool ensures that alternatives are evaluated against specific criteria, aligning decisions with desired outcomes.
  • Informed Decisions: Through quantifiable scores, it facilitates informed decision-making by offering a clear basis for comparison.
  • Baseline Selection: The matrix involves selecting a baseline alternative for comparison, aiding in relative assessment.
  • Visualization: Visual representation of scores and comparisons helps in easy interpretation and communication of results.
  • Iterative Process: It supports iterative refinement by allowing adjustments to criteria and scores for more accurate evaluations.
  • Applicability: Widely used in product design, process improvement, and other scenarios where decision-making involves multiple options.

Connected Agile & Lean Frameworks

AIOps

aiops
AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.

AgileSHIFT

AgileSHIFT
AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

agile-methodology
Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

agile-program-management
Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

agile-project-management
Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

agile-modeling
Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

agile-business-analysis
Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

agile-leadership
Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Andon System

andon-system
The andon system alerts managerial, maintenance, or other staff of a production process problem. The alert itself can be activated manually with a button or pull cord, but it can also be activated automatically by production equipment. Most Andon boards utilize three colored lights similar to a traffic signal: green (no errors), yellow or amber (problem identified, or quality check needed), and red (production stopped due to unidentified issue).

Bimodal Portfolio Management

bimodal-portfolio-management
Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

business-innovation
Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

business-model-innovation
Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

constructive-disruption
A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

continuous-innovation
That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

design-sprint
A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

design-thinking
Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.

DevOps

devops-engineering
DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

dual-track-agile
Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

eXtreme Programming

extreme-programming
eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

Feature-Driven Development

feature-driven-development
Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

Gemba Walk

gemba-walk
A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of lean management. It describes the personal observation of work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the real place”, or in business, “the place where value is created”. The Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System of lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management executives to leave their offices and see where the real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.

GIST Planning

gist-planning
GIST Planning is a relatively easy and lightweight agile approach to product planning that favors autonomous working. GIST Planning is a lean and agile methodology that was created by former Google product manager Itamar Gilad. GIST Planning seeks to address this situation by creating lightweight plans that are responsive and adaptable to change. GIST Planning also improves team velocity, autonomy, and alignment by reducing the pervasive influence of management. It consists of four blocks: goals, ideas, step-projects, and tasks.

ICE Scoring

ice-scoring-model
The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

innovation-funnel
An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

types-of-innovation
According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

innovation-theory
The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

lean-methodology-vs-agile
The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

startup-company
A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.

Minimum Viable Product

minimum-viable-product
As pointed out by Eric Ries, a minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort through a cycle of build, measure, learn; that is the foundation of the lean startup methodology.

Leaner MVP

leaner-mvp
A leaner MVP is the evolution of the MPV approach. Where the market risk is validated before anything else

Kanban

kanban
Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.

Jidoka

jidoka
Jidoka was first used in 1896 by Sakichi Toyoda, who invented a textile loom that would stop automatically when it encountered a defective thread. Jidoka is a Japanese term used in lean manufacturing. The term describes a scenario where machines cease operating without human intervention when a problem or defect is discovered.

PDCA Cycle

pdca-cycle
The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle was first proposed by American physicist and engineer Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. The PDCA cycle is a continuous process and product improvement method and an essential component of the lean manufacturing philosophy.

Rational Unified Process

rational-unified-process
Rational unified process (RUP) is an agile software development methodology that breaks the project life cycle down into four distinct phases.

Rapid Application Development

rapid-application-development
RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Retrospective Analysis

retrospective-analysis
Retrospective analyses are held after a project to determine what worked well and what did not. They are also conducted at the end of an iteration in Agile project management. Agile practitioners call these meetings retrospectives or retros. They are an effective way to check the pulse of a project team, reflect on the work performed to date, and reach a consensus on how to tackle the next sprint cycle. These are the five stages of a retrospective analysis for effective Agile project management: set the stage, gather the data, generate insights, decide on the next steps, and close the retrospective.

Scaled Agile

scaled-agile-lean-development
Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.

SMED

smed
The SMED (single minute exchange of die) method is a lean production framework to reduce waste and increase production efficiency. The SMED method is a framework for reducing the time associated with completing an equipment changeover.

Spotify Model

spotify-model
The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

test-driven-development
As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.

Timeboxing

timeboxing
Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.

Scrum

what-is-scrum
Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.

Scrumban

scrumban
Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

scrum-anti-patterns
Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

scrum-at-scale
Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Six Sigma

six-sigma
Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating errors or defects in a product, service, or process. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola as a management approach based on quality fundamentals in the early 1980s. A decade later, it was popularized by General Electric who estimated that the methodology saved them $12 billion in the first five years of operation.

Stretch Objectives

stretch-objectives
Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.

Toyota Production System

toyota-production-system
The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the Toyota Motor Corporation in the 1940s and 50s, the Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.

Total Quality Management

total-quality-management
The Total Quality Management (TQM) framework is a technique based on the premise that employees continuously work on their ability to provide value to customers. Importantly, the word “total” means that all employees are involved in the process – regardless of whether they work in development, production, or fulfillment.

Waterfall

waterfall-model
The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

Read Also: Continuous InnovationAgile MethodologyLean StartupBusiness Model InnovationProject Management.

Read Next: Agile Methodology, Lean Methodology, Agile Project Management, Scrum, Kanban, Six Sigma.

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