Empathy Mapping In A Nutshell

Empathy mapping is a visual representation of knowledge regarding user behavior and attitudes. An empathy map can be built by defining the scope, purpose to gain user insights, and for each action, add a sticky note, summarize the findings. Expand the plan and revise.

DefinitionEmpathy Mapping is a collaborative visualization tool that helps teams gain a deeper understanding of their users’ or customers’ perspectives, thoughts, and emotions. It allows teams to empathize with users to create products and services that meet their needs effectively.
PurposeThe primary purpose of Empathy Mapping is to develop a more profound and shared understanding of users or customers, which, in turn, informs decision-making, product design, and marketing strategies. It helps create a user-centered approach to problem-solving.
Key ElementsAn Empathy Map typically includes the following key elements: – Says: What the user or customer says, including their statements, quotes, or feedback. – Thinks: What the user thinks, including their fears, concerns, goals, and aspirations. – Feels: The user’s emotional state, including their worries, frustrations, and joys. – Does: User actions and behaviors, including daily routines and interactions. – Pains: User challenges, obstacles, or sources of frustration. – Gains: User desires, needs, or what they hope to achieve.
ProcessThe process involves a collaborative effort among team members. It typically includes: – Identifying the user persona or target audience. – Conducting interviews, surveys, or user research to gather insights. – Collecting and organizing data into the empathy map elements. – Discussing and analyzing the collected information as a team. – Creating actionable insights and strategies based on the empathy map.
MetricsWhile Empathy Mapping doesn’t involve traditional metrics, the success of the process can be assessed by the quality of insights gained and the extent to which these insights inform decision-making, leading to improved products, services, or user experiences.
Benefits– Enhanced User-Centric Design: Helps in designing products and services that align with user needs and emotions. – Improved Communication: Facilitates better team collaboration and communication by visualizing user insights. – Problem Solving: Guides effective problem-solving by focusing on user pain points and gains. – Innovation: Sparks innovative ideas by understanding user perspectives.
Drawbacks– Subjectivity: Empathy Mapping relies on qualitative data, which can be subjective and open to interpretation. – Limited Scope: The process may not capture the entire user experience, and additional research may be needed. – Bias: Biases can affect data collection and interpretation. – Time-Consuming: It may require significant time and effort, especially for in-depth research.
ApplicationsEmpathy Mapping is used in various industries, including UX design, marketing, product development, and healthcare, to understand and empathize with users or customers. It informs the creation of user personas, customer journey maps, and user-centered design processes.
Examples– Designing a mobile app by understanding the frustrations and desires of potential users. – Creating a marketing campaign that resonates with the emotions and motivations of a target audience. – Improving patient experiences in a healthcare setting by addressing their needs and concerns. – Designing a user-friendly website by empathizing with the challenges users face.
Continuous UseEmpathy Mapping is an iterative process that can be used throughout a product’s lifecycle. It can be revisited as new data and insights become available, ensuring that the user perspective remains a central consideration in decision-making and design.
Collaboration ToolEmpathy Mapping is a collaborative tool that encourages cross-functional teams to work together, including designers, marketers, researchers, and product managers. It fosters a shared understanding of users and promotes user-centric solutions.

Understanding empathy mapping

Empathy mapping is based on the concept that a user will buy a product that meets their needs and not solely based on their wants.

To identify what those needs are, empathy maps are created to help businesses gain a deeper understanding of the people they are trying to serve. With this information, buyer personas can be developed to develop and then target elements of broader user stories.

Traditional empathy maps contain four quadrants. Each provides a holistic assessment of four key user traits:


What has the user said out loud? Use verbatim or directly quoted information wherever possible.


Consider the thoughts that run through the user’s mind. What is important to them? What challenges are they facing?

Sometimes the user will be reluctant to share things that are bothering them, so prior qualitative research is required.


Encompassing any action the user takes.

For an e-commerce company, a particular user may repeatedly add a product to their shopping cart without purchasing it.


Oten based on emotions.

What worries or excites them?

A user may be overjoyed at buying a product on sale but then experience frustration upon not being able to learn how to use it.

Creating an empathy map

To create an empathy map, businesses should follow these steps:

Define the scope

Will the map be representative of a buyer persona or an individual user?

Define the purpose

If the goal is to align the whole company, then every team member should be involved.

However, if the focus is on qualitative research then only suitably skilled individuals should be approached.

Gain user insights

Interviews, surveys, and field studies are a good place to start.

Write each action on a sticky note based on insights gleaned from the previous step

Team members should work collaboratively to group similar sticky notes according to each quadrant. 

Summarise the findings

Were there any actions that did not fit any quadrant? Were there common themes or conversely, themes that occurred rarely? What does prevalence or a lack thereof say about potential gaps in user understanding?

Expand, plan, and revise

In some cases, businesses will need to add further quadrants to accommodate gaps in their knowledge. “Goals” and “Pains” are two examples of extra quadrants that are used in empathy mapping.

Once a final map has been created, it should be digitized and distributed to relevant employees. It should also be noted that empathy mapping is an iterative process. Plan to revisit and update maps periodically when new insights are identified.

Empathy mapping best practices

Empathy mapping is a collaborative effort, so it is perhaps inevitable that disagreements will occur regarding where actions should be assigned. Each team member may categorize information differently according to their personal values or experiences. 

Remember that the goal with empathy mapping is to identify and connect with the user. Much less importance is placed on accurately classifying information into each quadrant.

Furthermore, ensure that the mapping process does not include extraneous information. Businesses should only perform and incorporate qualitative research that directly relates to how a user interacts with their products or services.

Case Studies

  • E-commerce:
    • Understand customer preferences, pain points, and online shopping habits.
    • Improve website navigation, user interface, and checkout processes.
    • Enhance product descriptions and images based on user needs.
  • Software Development:
    • Identify user frustrations and challenges within software applications.
    • Optimize user interfaces, features, and functionalities.
    • Ensure user-centered design and usability.
  • Financial Services:
    • Gain insights into clients’ financial goals and concerns.
    • Tailor financial products and services to individual needs.
    • Enhance customer relationships and trust.
  • Manufacturing:
    • Address the ergonomic needs and safety concerns of assembly line workers.
    • Optimize production processes for efficiency and worker satisfaction.
    • Reduce workplace injuries and fatigue.
  • Hospitality:
    • Anticipate guest expectations for a comfortable and enjoyable stay.
    • Personalize services, amenities, and experiences.
    • Create memorable guest experiences that lead to positive reviews and repeat visits.
  • Automotive Industry:
    • Understand drivers’ preferences for vehicle features and comfort.
    • Improve vehicle design, safety, and performance.
    • Enhance the overall driving experience.
  • Retail Store Layout:
    • Analyze shopper behavior and decision-making.
    • Optimize store layouts, signage, and product placement.
    • Maximize sales and customer satisfaction.
  • Tech Support and Customer Service:
    • Empathize with customer frustrations during technical issues.
    • Provide more effective and compassionate customer support.
    • Improve customer satisfaction and loyalty.
  • Psychology and Therapy:
    • Connect with clients’ emotions, fears, and personal experiences.
    • Tailor therapy sessions to individual needs and concerns.
    • Foster trust and rapport with clients.
  • Sustainability Initiatives:
    • Gauge public attitudes toward environmental conservation.
    • Design eco-friendly campaigns and policies that resonate with the public.
    • Encourage sustainable behaviors and practices.
  • Legal Services:
    • Understand clients’ legal needs, challenges, and emotional states.
    • Provide legal counsel with empathy and consideration.
    • Build strong attorney-client relationships.
  • Mental Health Support:
    • Empathize with individuals facing mental health challenges.
    • Develop personalized treatment plans and interventions.
    • Promote mental and emotional well-being.
  • Agriculture:
    • Comprehend farmers’ concerns, goals, and challenges.
    • Develop agricultural practices and technologies that address specific needs.
    • Enhance crop yields and sustainability.
  • Public Policy and Government:
    • Connect with citizens affected by public policies.
    • Craft policies that address societal concerns effectively.
    • Build trust and support for government initiatives.
  • Media and Entertainment:
    • Understand audience preferences, emotional responses, and content consumption habits.
    • Create content that resonates with viewers and readers.
    • Drive higher engagement and audience satisfaction.
  • Environmental Conservation:
    • Connect with local communities living near protected areas.
    • Foster collaboration and support for conservation efforts.
    • Address community concerns and promote conservation awareness.
  • Parenting and Family Counseling:
    • Empathize with family dynamics and individual family members.
    • Facilitate communication and conflict resolution within families.
    • Strengthen family bonds and relationships.
  • Airlines and Travel Services:
    • Anticipate travelers’ needs and concerns.
    • Enhance in-flight services, entertainment, and comfort.
    • Improve the overall travel experience and customer loyalty.
  • Social Work:
    • Understand the backgrounds, challenges, and aspirations of clients.
    • Tailor support services and interventions to meet individual and family needs.
    • Promote well-being and self-sufficiency.
  • Supply Chain Management:
    • Gain insights into the experiences and challenges of suppliers, transporters, and customers.
    • Optimize supply chain processes, reducing delays and inefficiencies.
    • Enhance customer satisfaction and build stronger supplier relationships.

Key takeaways

  • Empathy mapping is a visualization process that helps businesses understand what their users want out of products 
  • Empathy mapping involves the analysis of four quadrants: says, thinks, does, and feels. Together, the four quadrants give a holistic view of how a user interacts with a product or service.
  • To get the most out of empathy mapping, businesses should focus on identifying with the user by incorporating a broad suite of team member perspectives. While the quadrants are important delineations, teams can lose sight of the end goal by debating minute details.

Key Highlights

  • Purpose and Concept: Empathy mapping is a visual tool that helps businesses understand user behavior and attitudes to create products that fulfill their needs.
  • User-Centered Approach: It is based on the principle that users buy products that meet their needs, rather than just their wants.
  • Components of Empathy Map:
    • Says: Represents what the user expresses verbally or quotes directly.
    • Thinks: Captures the user’s thoughts, concerns, and priorities.
    • Does: Encompasses user actions, behaviors, and interactions.
    • Feels: Reflects the user’s emotions, worries, and excitements.
  • Creating an Empathy Map:
    • Scope and Purpose: Define whether it’s for a specific persona or a broader user type.
    • User Insights: Gather data through interviews, surveys, and observations.
    • Sticky Notes: Write down user actions on sticky notes based on insights.
    • Group and Summarize: Collaboratively group similar actions under the four quadrants.
    • Expand and Revise: Adapt the map as needed, incorporating extra quadrants if necessary.
  • Iterative Process: Empathy mapping is not a one-time task; it should be revisited and updated periodically as new insights emerge.
  • Benefits:
    • Develops buyer personas and user stories for targeted product development.
    • Enhances understanding of user needs, behaviors, and motivations.
    • Facilitates alignment across teams and departments.
  • Collaboration and Subjectivity: Empathy mapping is a collaborative effort, and different team members may categorize information differently based on their perspectives.
  • End Goal Over Details: Focus on connecting with users rather than getting bogged down in minute classification details.
  • Relevance of Data: Only include qualitative research that directly relates to user interactions with products or services to avoid extraneous information.
  • User-Centered Design: Empathy mapping encourages businesses to prioritize user understanding and design products accordingly.
  • Applicability: Empathy mapping can be applied in various contexts, such as product design, customer service, and marketing.
  • Continuous Improvement: As an iterative process, empathy mapping ensures ongoing improvement by incorporating new insights and perspectives.

Connected Agile & Lean Frameworks


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.


AgileSHIFT is a framework that prepares individuals for transformational change by creating a culture of agility.

Agile Methodology

Agile started as a lightweight development method compared to heavyweight software development, which is the core paradigm of the previous decades of software development. By 2001 the Manifesto for Agile Software Development was born as a set of principles that defined the new paradigm for software development as a continuous iteration. This would also influence the way of doing business.

Agile Program Management

Agile Program Management is a means of managing, planning, and coordinating interrelated work in such a way that value delivery is emphasized for all key stakeholders. Agile Program Management (AgilePgM) is a disciplined yet flexible agile approach to managing transformational change within an organization.

Agile Project Management

Agile project management (APM) is a strategy that breaks large projects into smaller, more manageable tasks. In the APM methodology, each project is completed in small sections – often referred to as iterations. Each iteration is completed according to its project life cycle, beginning with the initial design and progressing to testing and then quality assurance.

Agile Modeling

Agile Modeling (AM) is a methodology for modeling and documenting software-based systems. Agile Modeling is critical to the rapid and continuous delivery of software. It is a collection of values, principles, and practices that guide effective, lightweight software modeling.

Agile Business Analysis

Agile Business Analysis (AgileBA) is certification in the form of guidance and training for business analysts seeking to work in agile environments. To support this shift, AgileBA also helps the business analyst relate Agile projects to a wider organizational mission or strategy. To ensure that analysts have the necessary skills and expertise, AgileBA certification was developed.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Andon System

The andon system alerts managerial, maintenance, or other staff of a production process problem. The alert itself can be activated manually with a button or pull cord, but it can also be activated automatically by production equipment. Most Andon boards utilize three colored lights similar to a traffic signal: green (no errors), yellow or amber (problem identified, or quality check needed), and red (production stopped due to unidentified issue).

Bimodal Portfolio Management

Bimodal Portfolio Management (BimodalPfM) helps an organization manage both agile and traditional portfolios concurrently. Bimodal Portfolio Management – sometimes referred to as bimodal development – was coined by research and advisory company Gartner. The firm argued that many agile organizations still needed to run some aspects of their operations using traditional delivery models.

Business Innovation Matrix

Business innovation is about creating new opportunities for an organization to reinvent its core offerings, revenue streams, and enhance the value proposition for existing or new customers, thus renewing its whole business model. Business innovation springs by understanding the structure of the market, thus adapting or anticipating those changes.

Business Model Innovation

Business model innovation is about increasing the success of an organization with existing products and technologies by crafting a compelling value proposition able to propel a new business model to scale up customers and create a lasting competitive advantage. And it all starts by mastering the key customers.

Constructive Disruption

A consumer brand company like Procter & Gamble (P&G) defines “Constructive Disruption” as: a willingness to change, adapt, and create new trends and technologies that will shape our industry for the future. According to P&G, it moves around four pillars: lean innovation, brand building, supply chain, and digitalization & data analytics.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problem and not the technical solution of its founders.

Design Sprint

A design sprint is a proven five-day process where critical business questions are answered through speedy design and prototyping, focusing on the end-user. A design sprint starts with a weekly challenge that should finish with a prototype, test at the end, and therefore a lesson learned to be iterated.

Design Thinking

Tim Brown, Executive Chair of IDEO, defined design thinking as “a human-centered approach to innovation that draws from the designer’s toolkit to integrate the needs of people, the possibilities of technology, and the requirements for business success.” Therefore, desirability, feasibility, and viability are balanced to solve critical problems.


DevOps refers to a series of practices performed to perform automated software development processes. It is a conjugation of the term “development” and “operations” to emphasize how functions integrate across IT teams. DevOps strategies promote seamless building, testing, and deployment of products. It aims to bridge a gap between development and operations teams to streamline the development altogether.

Dual Track Agile

Product discovery is a critical part of agile methodologies, as its aim is to ensure that products customers love are built. Product discovery involves learning through a raft of methods, including design thinking, lean start-up, and A/B testing to name a few. Dual Track Agile is an agile methodology containing two separate tracks: the “discovery” track and the “delivery” track.

eXtreme Programming

eXtreme Programming was developed in the late 1990s by Ken Beck, Ron Jeffries, and Ward Cunningham. During this time, the trio was working on the Chrysler Comprehensive Compensation System (C3) to help manage the company payroll system. eXtreme Programming (XP) is a software development methodology. It is designed to improve software quality and the ability of software to adapt to changing customer needs.

Feature-Driven Development

Feature-Driven Development is a pragmatic software process that is client and architecture-centric. Feature-Driven Development (FDD) is an agile software development model that organizes workflow according to which features need to be developed next.

Gemba Walk

A Gemba Walk is a fundamental component of lean management. It describes the personal observation of work to learn more about it. Gemba is a Japanese word that loosely translates as “the real place”, or in business, “the place where value is created”. The Gemba Walk as a concept was created by Taiichi Ohno, the father of the Toyota Production System of lean manufacturing. Ohno wanted to encourage management executives to leave their offices and see where the real work happened. This, he hoped, would build relationships between employees with vastly different skillsets and build trust.

GIST Planning

GIST Planning is a relatively easy and lightweight agile approach to product planning that favors autonomous working. GIST Planning is a lean and agile methodology that was created by former Google product manager Itamar Gilad. GIST Planning seeks to address this situation by creating lightweight plans that are responsive and adaptable to change. GIST Planning also improves team velocity, autonomy, and alignment by reducing the pervasive influence of management. It consists of four blocks: goals, ideas, step-projects, and tasks.

ICE Scoring

The ICE Scoring Model is an agile methodology that prioritizes features using data according to three components: impact, confidence, and ease of implementation. The ICE Scoring Model was initially created by author and growth expert Sean Ellis to help companies expand. Today, the model is broadly used to prioritize projects, features, initiatives, and rollouts. It is ideally suited for early-stage product development where there is a continuous flow of ideas and momentum must be maintained.

Innovation Funnel

An innovation funnel is a tool or process ensuring only the best ideas are executed. In a metaphorical sense, the funnel screens innovative ideas for viability so that only the best products, processes, or business models are launched to the market. An innovation funnel provides a framework for the screening and testing of innovative ideas for viability.

Innovation Matrix

According to how well defined is the problem and how well defined the domain, we have four main types of innovations: basic research (problem and domain or not well defined); breakthrough innovation (domain is not well defined, the problem is well defined); sustaining innovation (both problem and domain are well defined); and disruptive innovation (domain is well defined, the problem is not well defined).

Innovation Theory

The innovation loop is a methodology/framework derived from the Bell Labs, which produced innovation at scale throughout the 20th century. They learned how to leverage a hybrid innovation management model based on science, invention, engineering, and manufacturing at scale. By leveraging individual genius, creativity, and small/large groups.

Lean vs. Agile

The Agile methodology has been primarily thought of for software development (and other business disciplines have also adopted it). Lean thinking is a process improvement technique where teams prioritize the value streams to improve it continuously. Both methodologies look at the customer as the key driver to improvement and waste reduction. Both methodologies look at improvement as something continuous.

Lean Startup

A startup company is a high-tech business that tries to build a scalable business model in tech-driven industries. A startup company usually follows a lean methodology, where continuous innovation, driven by built-in viral loops is the rule. Thus, driving growth and building network effects as a consequence of this strategy.

Minimum Viable Product

As pointed out by Eric Ries, a minimum viable product is that version of a new product which allows a team to collect the maximum amount of validated learning about customers with the least effort through a cycle of build, measure, learn; that is the foundation of the lean startup methodology.

Leaner MVP

A leaner MVP is the evolution of the MPV approach. Where the market risk is validated before anything else


Kanban is a lean manufacturing framework first developed by Toyota in the late 1940s. The Kanban framework is a means of visualizing work as it moves through identifying potential bottlenecks. It does that through a process called just-in-time (JIT) manufacturing to optimize engineering processes, speed up manufacturing products, and improve the go-to-market strategy.


Jidoka was first used in 1896 by Sakichi Toyoda, who invented a textile loom that would stop automatically when it encountered a defective thread. Jidoka is a Japanese term used in lean manufacturing. The term describes a scenario where machines cease operating without human intervention when a problem or defect is discovered.

PDCA Cycle

The PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) cycle was first proposed by American physicist and engineer Walter A. Shewhart in the 1920s. The PDCA cycle is a continuous process and product improvement method and an essential component of the lean manufacturing philosophy.

Rational Unified Process

Rational unified process (RUP) is an agile software development methodology that breaks the project life cycle down into four distinct phases.

Rapid Application Development

RAD was first introduced by author and consultant James Martin in 1991. Martin recognized and then took advantage of the endless malleability of software in designing development models. Rapid Application Development (RAD) is a methodology focusing on delivering rapidly through continuous feedback and frequent iterations.

Retrospective Analysis

Retrospective analyses are held after a project to determine what worked well and what did not. They are also conducted at the end of an iteration in Agile project management. Agile practitioners call these meetings retrospectives or retros. They are an effective way to check the pulse of a project team, reflect on the work performed to date, and reach a consensus on how to tackle the next sprint cycle. These are the five stages of a retrospective analysis for effective Agile project management: set the stage, gather the data, generate insights, decide on the next steps, and close the retrospective.

Scaled Agile

Scaled Agile Lean Development (ScALeD) helps businesses discover a balanced approach to agile transition and scaling questions. The ScALed approach helps businesses successfully respond to change. Inspired by a combination of lean and agile values, ScALed is practitioner-based and can be completed through various agile frameworks and practices.


The SMED (single minute exchange of die) method is a lean production framework to reduce waste and increase production efficiency. The SMED method is a framework for reducing the time associated with completing an equipment changeover.

Spotify Model

The Spotify Model is an autonomous approach to scaling agile, focusing on culture communication, accountability, and quality. The Spotify model was first recognized in 2012 after Henrik Kniberg, and Anders Ivarsson released a white paper detailing how streaming company Spotify approached agility. Therefore, the Spotify model represents an evolution of agile.

Test-Driven Development

As the name suggests, TDD is a test-driven technique for delivering high-quality software rapidly and sustainably. It is an iterative approach based on the idea that a failing test should be written before any code for a feature or function is written. Test-Driven Development (TDD) is an approach to software development that relies on very short development cycles.


Timeboxing is a simple yet powerful time-management technique for improving productivity. Timeboxing describes the process of proactively scheduling a block of time to spend on a task in the future. It was first described by author James Martin in a book about agile software development.


Scrum is a methodology co-created by Ken Schwaber and Jeff Sutherland for effective team collaboration on complex products. Scrum was primarily thought for software development projects to deliver new software capability every 2-4 weeks. It is a sub-group of agile also used in project management to improve startups’ productivity.


Scrumban is a project management framework that is a hybrid of two popular agile methodologies: Scrum and Kanban. Scrumban is a popular approach to helping businesses focus on the right strategic tasks while simultaneously strengthening their processes.

Scrum Anti-Patterns

Scrum anti-patterns describe any attractive, easy-to-implement solution that ultimately makes a problem worse. Therefore, these are the practice not to follow to prevent issues from emerging. Some classic examples of scrum anti-patterns comprise absent product owners, pre-assigned tickets (making individuals work in isolation), and discounting retrospectives (where review meetings are not useful to really make improvements).

Scrum At Scale

Scrum at Scale (Scrum@Scale) is a framework that Scrum teams use to address complex problems and deliver high-value products. Scrum at Scale was created through a joint venture between the Scrum Alliance and Scrum Inc. The joint venture was overseen by Jeff Sutherland, a co-creator of Scrum and one of the principal authors of the Agile Manifesto.

Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating errors or defects in a product, service, or process. Six Sigma was developed by Motorola as a management approach based on quality fundamentals in the early 1980s. A decade later, it was popularized by General Electric who estimated that the methodology saved them $12 billion in the first five years of operation.

Stretch Objectives

Stretch objectives describe any task an agile team plans to complete without expressly committing to do so. Teams incorporate stretch objectives during a Sprint or Program Increment (PI) as part of Scaled Agile. They are used when the agile team is unsure of its capacity to attain an objective. Therefore, stretch objectives are instead outcomes that, while extremely desirable, are not the difference between the success or failure of each sprint.

Toyota Production System

The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an early form of lean manufacturing created by auto-manufacturer Toyota. Created by the Toyota Motor Corporation in the 1940s and 50s, the Toyota Production System seeks to manufacture vehicles ordered by customers most quickly and efficiently possible.

Total Quality Management

The Total Quality Management (TQM) framework is a technique based on the premise that employees continuously work on their ability to provide value to customers. Importantly, the word “total” means that all employees are involved in the process – regardless of whether they work in development, production, or fulfillment.


The waterfall model was first described by Herbert D. Benington in 1956 during a presentation about the software used in radar imaging during the Cold War. Since there were no knowledge-based, creative software development strategies at the time, the waterfall method became standard practice. The waterfall model is a linear and sequential project management framework. 

Read Also: Continuous InnovationAgile MethodologyLean StartupBusiness Model InnovationProject Management.

Read Next: Agile Methodology, Lean Methodology, Agile Project Management, Scrum, Kanban, Six Sigma.

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