tdodar-decision-model

TDODAR Decision Model In A Nutshell

The TDODAR decision model helps an individual make good decisions in emergencies or any scenario with a high degree of uncertainty. TDODAR is an acronym of the six sequential steps that every practitioner must follow, comprising: time, diagnosis, options, decide, act/assign, review.

Understanding the TDODAR decision model

The TDODAR decision model is traditionally associated with the aviation industry

During a flight, pilots are required to make informed decisions in what is a very high-stakes environment. But decision making can be influenced by many factors, including stress, spatial disorientation, or simply a lack of experience or knowledge. Pilots use the methodical nature of the TDODAR model to consider all options before ultimately deciding on a course of action.

The model also has applications in most other industries, particularly if a clear plan of action is not immediately apparent. This helps businesses avoid making rushed or incorrect decisions that are not in their best interests.

The TDODAR decision model process

TDODAR is an acronym of the six sequential steps that every practitioner must follow.

Following is a look at each of the steps:

  1. T (Time) – how much time is available to make the decision? It’s important to be thorough on this initial step because it will affect how the following steps are performed. Every person who is involved in a decision should be aware of time constraints.
  2. D (Diagnosis) – to accurately diagnose the problem and its causes, gather data, and consult a wide range of relevant expertise. The 5 Whys technique can be used for moderately difficult problems. For complex problems, try the Cause and Effect Analysis. Avoid confirmation bias and be on the lookout for groupthink, where people in a group choose not to voice their concerns to facilitate group consensus.
  3. O (Options) – in terms of solving the problem, what are the options? Some options are more feasible and intuitive than others. But when a solution is not immediately apparent, it is helpful to brainstorm ideas.
  4. D (Decide) – given the information gleaned in the first three steps, a senior individual must make the most sensible decision. In high-pressure situations, it is wise to include others in the decision-making process to avoid judgment errors and biases.
  5. A (Act/Assign) – who will act on the solution? Once this has been determined, roles and responsibilities must be assigned. During a commercial flight, the pilot and first-officer share responsibilities but have clearly defined roles. In a business scenario, a decision-maker may act on the solution or delegate responsibility to subordinates.
  6. R (Review) – in the final step, the efficacy of the solution must be analyzed. Has it solved the problem? Have the desired results materialized? If the problem becomes recurrent or worsens over time then decision-makers must reassess previously discarded solutions. In some cases, they may have to perform a new TDODAR analysis.

TDODAR decision model best practices

Use these best practices to get the most out of the TDODAR decision model:

  • Consider whether the problem has a high level of uncertainty or time pressure before beginning. If the problem cannot satisfy either of these criteria, then the effectiveness of the model is limited.
  • Run through each step sequentially – resist the urge to complete more than one at a time.
  • Be concise when stating thoughts and facts, particularly if time is at a premium.
  • Collaboration with others can be beneficial if there is time to do so. The discussion should always remain objective and free of emotion or personal agendas. If there is a disagreement on the choice of solution, move forward with the most conservative option.

Key takeaways:

  • The TDODAR decision model facilitates good decision making in emergencies or similar high-stress, time-sensitive situations.
  • The TDODAR decision model is based on a sequential six-step process that defines the TDODAR acronym: time, diagnosis, options, decide, act, and review.
  • Using the TDODAR decision model effectively means ensuring the problem has a high degree of associated uncertainty. Decision teams should also be concise and avoid subjectivity creeping into discussions.

Other Decision-Making Frameworks

Cynefin Framework

cynefin-framework
The Cynefin Framework gives context to decision making and problem-solving by providing context and guiding an appropriate response. The five domains of the Cynefin Framework comprise obvious, complicated, complex, chaotic domains and disorder if a domain has not been determined at all.

SWOT Analysis

swot-analysis
A SWOT Analysis is a framework used for evaluating the business’s Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats. It can aid in identifying the problematic areas of your business so that you can maximize your opportunities. It will also alert you to the challenges your organization might face in the future.

Pareto Analysis

pareto-principle-pareto-analysis
The Pareto Analysis is a statistical analysis used in business decision making that identifies a certain number of input factors that have the greatest impact on income. It is based on the similarly named Pareto Principle, which states that 80% of the effect of something can be attributed to just 20% of the drivers.

Failure Mode And Effects Analysis

failure-mode-and-effects-analysis
A failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured approach to identifying design failures in a product or process. Developed in the 1950s, the failure mode and effects analysis is one the earliest methodologies of its kind. It enables organizations to anticipate a range of potential failures during the design stage.

Blindspot Analysis

blindspot-analysis
A Blindspot Analysis is a means of unearthing incorrect or outdated assumptions that can harm decision making in an organization. The term “blindspot analysis” was first coined by American economist Michael Porter. Porter argued that in business, outdated ideas or strategies had the potential to stifle modern ideas and prevent them from succeeding. Furthermore, decisions a business thought were made with care caused projects to fail because major factors had not been duly considered.

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