panas-schedule

What Is PANAS Schedule? PANAS Schedule In A Nutshell

The positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) was developed by researchers from Southern Methodist University and the University of Minnesota in 1988. The PANAS schedule is the most widely and frequently used scale to assess positive and negative emotions through two scales of measure: positive affect, and negative affect.

Understanding the PANAS schedule

The schedule is comprised of two scales, with each consisting of different words that describe feelings and emotions. More specifically, the two scales measure:

  1. Positive affect – or the propensity of an individual to experience positive emotions and interact with others positively with joy, cheerfulness, or contentment. 
  2. Negative affect – where the individual experiences negative emotions that influence how they interact with others and their surroundings. These emotions may include sadness, anger, or fear.

Here, the term affect simply describes the emotions or feelings an individual experiences at any given moment and how these emotions or feelings influence behavior. 

The PANAS schedule is used as a self-reporting diagnostic tool in community and clinical contexts, with the scale itself showing the relationship between positive and negative affect according to certain personality traits. 

Since both affects exist on a scale, a person can exhibit both positive and negative emotions at the same time. For example, an individual whose colleague receives a promotion may feel happy for them but also jealous.

Completing a PANAS schedule

For each of the two scales outlined in the previous section, researchers identified 10 positive and negative affect terms strongly correlated with mood. These are listed below.

Positive affect

  1. Attentive.
  2. Active.
  3. Alert.
  4. Excited.
  5. Enthusiastic.
  6. Determined.
  7. Inspired.
  8. Proud.
  9. Interested. 
  10. Strong.

Negative affect

  1. Hostile.
  2. Irritable.
  3. Ashamed.
  4. Guilty.
  5. Distressed.
  6. Upset.
  7. Scared.
  8. Afraid.
  9. Jittery.
  10. Nervous.

Participants then use a 5-point Likert scale to evaluate the extent to which an emotion applies. 

Specifically:

  1. Very slightly or not at all.
  2. A little.
  3. Moderately.
  4. Quite a bit.
  5. Extremely.

In a clinical context, the client is asked to rate the degree to which they are experiencing emotions in the present moment or the past week. 

Once completed, the participants sum the scores from each of the ten positive and negative affect terms. Scores range from 10 and 50 in both cases, with lower scores representing lower levels of positive and negative affect and higher scores representing higher levels.

Subsequent interpretations of the PANAS schedule

The PANAS schedule has undergone several revisions since it was released, including:

  • PANAS-C – for clinicians who work with school-age children. This test was designed to make it simpler for children to identify different emotions. A shortened version with 10 questions instead of 29 is also available.
  • I-PANAS-SF – a short-form iteration for those with competent but non-native English speaking skills. This test has fewer ambiguities, which reduces the likelihood a question will be misinterpreted.
  • PANAS-X – a shorter and more refined version released in 1994 that can be completed in as little as ten minutes. In addition to positive and negative affect, PANAS-X incorporates other affective states such as shyness, serenity, and surprise.

Key takeaways:

  • The PANAS schedule is the most widely and frequently used scale to assess positive and negative emotions. It was developed by researchers from Southern Methodist University and the University of Minnesota in 1988.
  • The PANAS schedule measures positive and negative affect, or the moment-by-moment emotions and feelings an individual experiences which influence their behavior. Both are measured on a scale since positive and negative emotions can occur simultaneously.
  • The PANAS schedule has been adapted to multiple applications since its release. Variations of the test are now administered to children and non-native English speakers, among other uses.

Connected Business Matrices

SFA Matrix

sfa-matrix
The SFA matrix is a framework that helps businesses evaluate strategic options. Gerry Johnson and Kevan Scholes created the SFA matrix to help businesses evaluate their strategic options before committing. Evaluation of strategic opportunities is performed by considering three criteria that make up the SFA acronym: suitability, feasibility, and acceptability.

Hoshin Kanri X-Matrix

hoshin-kanri-x-matrix
The Hoshin Kanri X-Matrix is a strategy deployment tool that helps businesses achieve goals over the short and long term. Hoshin Kanri is a method that seeks to bridge the gap between strategy and execution. Strategic objectives are clearly defined and the goals of every level of the organization are aligned. With everyone moving in the same direction, process coordination and decision-making ability are strengthened.

Kepner-Tregoe Matrix

kepner-tregoe-matrix
The Kepner-Tregoe matrix was created by management consultants Charles H. Kepner and Benjamin B. Tregoe in the 1960s, developed to help businesses navigate the decisions they make daily, the Kepner-Tregoe matrix is a root cause analysis used in organizational decision making.

Eisenhower Matrix

eisenhower-matrix
The Eisenhower Matrix is a tool that helps businesses prioritize tasks based on their urgency and importance, named after Dwight D. Eisenhower, President of the United States from 1953 to 1961, the matrix helps businesses and individuals differentiate between the urgent and important to prevent urgent things (seemingly useful in the short-term) cannibalize important things (critical for long-term success).

Decision Matrix

decision-matrix
A decision matrix is a decision-making tool that evaluates and prioritizes a list of options. Decision matrices are useful when: A list of options must be trimmed to a single choice. A decision must be made based on several criteria. A list of criteria has been made manageable through the process of elimination.

Action Priority Matrix

action-priority-matrix
An action priority matrix is a productivity tool that helps businesses prioritize certain tasks and objectives over others. The matrix itself is represented by four quadrants on a typical cartesian graph. These quadrants are plotted against the effort required to complete a task (x-axis) and the impact (benefit) that each task brings once completed (y-axis). This matrix helps assess what projects need to be undertaken and the potential impact for each.

TOWS Matrix

tows-matrix
The TOWS Matrix is an acronym for Threats, Opportunities, Weaknesses, and Strengths. The matrix is a variation on the SWOT Analysis, and it seeks to address criticisms of the SWOT Analysis regarding its inability to show relationships between the various categories.

GE McKinsey Matrix

ge-mckinsey-matrix
The GE McKinsey Matrix was developed in the 1970s after General Electric asked its consultant McKinsey to develop a portfolio management model. This matrix is a strategy tool that provides guidance on how a corporation should prioritize its investments among its business units, leading to three possible scenarios: invest, protect, harvest, and divest.

BCG Matrix

bcg-matrix
In the 1970s, Bruce D. Henderson, founder of the Boston Consulting Group, came up with The Product Portfolio (aka BCG Matrix, or Growth-share Matrix), which would look at a successful business product portfolio based on potential growth and market shares. It divided products into four main categories: cash cows, pets (dogs), question marks, and stars.

Growth Matrix

growth-strategies
In the FourWeekMBA growth matrix, you can apply growth for existing customers by tackling the same problems (gain mode). Or by tackling existing problems, for new customers (expand mode). Or by tackling new problems for existing customers (extend mode). Or perhaps by tackling whole new problems for new customers (reinvent mode).

Ansoff Matrix

ansoff-matrix
You can use the Ansoff Matrix as a strategic framework to understand what growth strategy is more suited based on the market context. Developed by mathematician and business manager Igor Ansoff, it assumes a growth strategy can be derived by whether the market is new or existing, and the product is new or existing.

Read Next: Growth Hacking, SWOT Analysis, Personal SWOT Analysis, TOWS Matrix, PESTEL Analysis, Porter’s Five Forces.

Read Next: Root Cause Analysis, 5 Whys.

Related Strategy Concepts: Go-To-Market StrategyMarketing StrategyBusiness ModelsTech Business ModelsJobs-To-Be DoneDesign ThinkingLean Startup CanvasValue ChainValue Proposition CanvasBalanced ScorecardBusiness Model CanvasSWOT AnalysisGrowth HackingBundlingUnbundlingBootstrappingVenture CapitalPorter’s Five ForcesPorter’s Generic StrategiesPorter’s Five ForcesPESTEL AnalysisSWOTPorter’s Diamond ModelAnsoffTechnology Adoption CurveTOWSSOARBalanced ScorecardOKRAgile MethodologyValue PropositionVTDF FrameworkBCG MatrixGE McKinsey Matrix, Kotter’s 8-Step Change Model.

Main Free Guides:

Scroll to Top
FourWeekMBA