What Is Management By Wandering Around? Management By Wandering Around In A Nutshell

Management by wandering around describes a style of business management where superiors wander about the workplace at random to check on employees and the status of ongoing work. Management by wandering around (MBWA) emphasizes the word wandering to describe the way managers move around the workplace in an unplanned or unpredictable fashion. This approach is in stark contrast to more structured management approaches, where managers visit employees at systematic, scheduled, or pre-approved times.

DefinitionManagement By Wandering Around (MBWA) is a management philosophy and practice that encourages leaders and managers to be actively present and engaged with employees and their work environment. Coined by management experts Tom Peters and Robert H. Waterman in their book “In Search of Excellence,” MBWA involves leaders periodically leaving their offices and spending time interacting informally with employees on the shop floor, in offices, or in various work settings. The aim is to foster open communication, gain insights into the organization’s functioning, build relationships, and stay attuned to employee concerns and ideas. MBWA is based on the belief that leadership is most effective when leaders are visible, approachable, and connected to the workforce. It has been widely adopted as a leadership and management technique across various industries.
Key ElementsActive Presence: MBWA emphasizes the physical presence of leaders in the workplace to interact with employees. – Informal Interaction: Leaders engage with employees in informal, non-hierarchical conversations. – Listening: Leaders actively listen to employees, seeking their input, concerns, and ideas. – Open Communication: MBWA encourages open and candid communication between leaders and employees. – Visibility: It involves leaders being visible and accessible, breaking down barriers between management and staff.
CharacteristicsInformal Walkabouts: Leaders conduct spontaneous walkabouts to engage with employees across different work areas. – Two-Way Communication: MBWA fosters two-way communication, allowing employees to voice their concerns and suggestions. – Visibility: It enhances the visibility of leaders within the organization, making them approachable figures. – Relationship Building: Leaders use MBWA to build rapport and trust with employees. – Problem-Solving: MBWA enables leaders to identify and address issues promptly.
ImplicationsImproved Employee Morale: MBWA boosts employee morale by making them feel valued and heard. – Enhanced Productivity: Open communication and prompt issue resolution lead to increased productivity. – Innovation: Leaders can tap into employees’ creative ideas and foster innovation. – Reduced Hierarchies: MBWA reduces hierarchical barriers and fosters a flatter organizational structure. – Better Decision-Making: Leaders gain valuable insights for informed decision-making.
AdvantagesStronger Employee Engagement: MBWA strengthens employee engagement and commitment to the organization. – Improved Communication: It enhances communication and transparency throughout the organization. – Prompt Issue Resolution: Leaders can address issues promptly, preventing them from escalating. – Enhanced Innovation: Leaders can harness the collective intelligence of the workforce for innovative solutions. – Better Decision-Making: Informed decisions are made with a deeper understanding of the organization’s challenges and opportunities.
DrawbacksTime-Consuming: MBWA can be time-consuming for leaders, especially in larger organizations. – Lack of Privacy: Some employees may feel uncomfortable discussing sensitive matters in an open setting. – Overwhelming Feedback: Gathering extensive feedback may lead to information overload. – Resistance: Employees or leaders may resist the change in leadership style if not introduced gradually. – Scalability: Implementing MBWA in large organizations with multiple locations can be challenging.
ApplicationsCorporate Leadership: Senior executives and CEOs use MBWA to connect with employees at all levels of the organization. – Retail Industry: Retail managers practice MBWA to engage with front-line employees and customers. – Manufacturing: In manufacturing settings, supervisors and plant managers use MBWA to monitor operations and interact with workers. – Education: School principals and administrators implement MBWA to connect with teachers and students. – Healthcare: Hospital administrators and healthcare facility managers apply MBWA to engage with medical staff and patients.
Use CasesCEO Engagement: A CEO regularly walks through company offices and facilities, engaging with employees to understand their concerns and ideas. – Retail Manager Interaction: A retail store manager regularly interacts with store associates and customers to gauge customer experiences and employee morale. – Manufacturing Supervisor Monitoring: A manufacturing supervisor conducts regular walkabouts to monitor production lines, address concerns, and gather feedback from workers. – School Principal Connection: A school principal walks through classrooms, talking to teachers and students to stay connected with the school community. – Hospital Administrator Engagement: A hospital administrator interacts with medical staff, patients, and families to ensure a high level of care and address any issues promptly.

Understanding management by wandering around 

Though the approach is frequently used by political or military leaders, Hewlett-Packard was the first company to implement MBWA as a formal management technique.

In his 1995 book The HP Way, co-founder David Packard attributed the success of Hewlett-Packard to a culture where employees felt comfortable raising concerns to managers who listened attentively. 

This culture is fundamental to management by wandering around because it promotes collaborative, two-way communication and problem-solving.

In this way, MBWA is quite similar to the Gemba walks of the Toyota Production System – where managers visit work locations, observe processes, and liaise with employees to solve problems.

Whatever the moniker given, however, the strategy enables leaders to closely engage with their subordinates and model acceptable standards of behavior.

For employees, the MBWA approach helps them view their superiors as real people and not distant authority figures.

Key characteristics of management by wandering around

There are three key characteristics of the MBDA approach:


Like any action, management by wandering around is only effective if it is sincere.

Managers will not be able to foster relationships if their visit to a worksite is forced, hurried, or half-hearted.

The same can be said for managers who travel with an entourage, which only seeks to alienate or intimidate workers.

Employees who have become accustomed to mistreatment from management are highly adept at recognizing insincerity.


As we noted earlier, engagement of the employees is also key.

While small talk serves a purpose, the manager must use their time wisely by actively observing their workers in action and asking important follow-up questions.

They must also actively listen to employee concerns and express appreciation for the meaningful contributions they make to the company.


This means the manager makes an effort to communicate with all employees, regardless of department or whether they report to a different superior.

Inclusiveness is also linked with consistency.

For example, a regional manufacturing manager should make the effort to visit every factory under their jurisdiction and not just those that are nearby.

Strengths of management by wandering around


Through fear or a general belief their concerns won’t be addressed, most employees are reluctant to speak to management directly.

However, the MBWA approach creates leaders who are open, honest, and approachable.

Increased cohesiveness

Over time, two-way communication can be infectious and encourage people to work cohesively as a team.

This has significant positive implications for problem detection or avoidance and company culture.

Holistic knowledge

Hierarchical managers are often disconnected from the very people and processes that power the company.

Managers who regularly liaise with frontline workers improve their own working knowledge and understanding of the business.

Weaknesses of management by wandering around

Geographical constraints

Managers tasked with overseeing large geographic areas may find the logistics of working with frontline employees difficult.

Time and financial constraints may also exacerbate this issue and lead to the manager neglecting other facets of their role.

Lack of insight

Some believe employees expecting a visit from management will not provide an accurate representation of reality.

While management by wandering around does facilitate meaningful conversations, the reality is many employees will refrain from providing honest feedback if it may be construed as criticizing the boss.

Reliance on subordinates

While low-level employees are the most qualified to comment on daily operations, the MBWA approach can cause some businesses to place too much importance on their input.

In the process, equally valuable customer or other stakeholder input is not taken into account.

Key takeaways

  • Management by wandering around is a business management approach where superiors wander about the workplace at random to check on employees and the status of ongoing work
  • Management by wandering around is underpinned by three key characteristics: authenticity, engagement, and inclusiveness.
  • Management by wandering around increases team cohesiveness, company culture, and broadens manager knowledge. However, its effectiveness may be limited by geographical constraints and an overreliance on the opinion of low-level employees.

Key Highlights

  • Definition and Purpose:
    • Management by Wandering Around (MBWA) is a management approach where leaders, including managers and executives, actively move through the workplace to observe, interact with employees, and gather insights into ongoing work.
    • The primary purpose of MBWA is to foster open communication, build relationships, and gain a deeper understanding of day-to-day operations and employee concerns.
  • Origin and Evolution:
    • MBWA was formalized by Hewlett-Packard as a management technique.
    • Co-founder David Packard emphasized a culture where employees felt comfortable sharing concerns and ideas with managers who actively listened.
    • MBWA draws inspiration from the concept of “Gemba walks” in the Toyota Production System, where managers engage with frontline workers to improve processes.
  • Key Characteristics:
    • Authenticity: MBWA’s effectiveness relies on the authenticity of interactions. Managers must genuinely engage with employees rather than perform token visits.
    • Engagement: Managers use their time wisely by closely observing work processes, asking relevant questions, and actively listening to employees’ viewpoints.
    • Inclusiveness: MBWA encourages managers to interact with employees across different departments, roles, and hierarchies, promoting a sense of unity and teamwork.
  • Strengths of MBWA:
    • Approachability: Regular interactions through MBWA make leaders more approachable and accessible to employees.
    • Cohesiveness: The consistent presence of managers and their engagement efforts promote teamwork and a collaborative atmosphere.
    • Holistic Knowledge: Managers gain firsthand insights into daily operations, allowing them to make informed decisions and address challenges effectively.
  • Weaknesses of MBWA:
    • Geographical Constraints: Managers overseeing multiple locations might find it logistically challenging to maintain consistent engagement.
    • Lack of Insight: Some employees may hesitate to share negative feedback during a manager’s visit, leading to incomplete or overly positive insights.
    • Reliance on Subordinates: Overemphasis on employee input might overlook the perspectives of other stakeholders, such as customers or external partners.
  • Contemporary Relevance:
    • MBWA aligns with modern leadership principles that emphasize open communication, empathy, and collaboration.
    • It fits well with servant leadership, agile management, and other progressive leadership approaches.
  • Impact on Employee Engagement and Performance:
    • MBWA has a positive impact on employee morale and engagement, as employees feel valued and recognized by their superiors.
    • Engaged employees are more likely to contribute creatively, stay committed to their tasks, and collaborate effectively with their peers.
  • Adaptation to Remote Work:
    • In the era of remote work, MBWA principles can be adapted to virtual environments.
    • Virtual meetings, video conferences, and interactive digital platforms allow managers to maintain regular contact, provide feedback, and address concerns.
  • Future Outlook:
    • As organizations prioritize transparency, employee engagement, and holistic understanding of operations, MBWA remains relevant.
    • It contributes to building a culture of open communication, trust, and collaboration within teams.

Connected Business Concepts

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The Amazon Flywheel or Amazon Virtuous Cycle is a strategy that leverages on customer experience to drive traffic to the platform and third-party sellers. That improves the selections of goods, and Amazon further improves its cost structure so it can decrease prices which spins the flywheel.

Amazon Business Model

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Jeff Bezos Day One

In the letter to shareholders in 2016, Jeff Bezos addressed a topic he had been thinking about quite profoundly in the last decades as he led Amazon: Day 1. As Jeff Bezos put it “Day 2 is stasis. Followed by irrelevance. Followed by excruciating, painful decline. Followed by death. And that is why it is always Day 1.”

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Amazon Mission Statement

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Amazon’s mission statement is to “serve consumers through online and physical stores and focus on selection, price, and convenience.” Amazon’s vision statement is “to be Earth’s most customer-centric company, where customers can find and discover anything they might want to buy online, and endeavors to offer its customers the lowest possible prices.” 

Amazon AWS

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Amazon Organizational Culture

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Amazon Organizational Structure

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Customer Obsession

Customer obsession goes beyond quantitative and qualitative data about customers, and it moves around customers’ feedback to gather valuable insights. Those insights start by the entrepreneur’s wandering process, driven by hunch, gut, intuition, curiosity, and a builder mindset. The product discovery moves around a building, reworking, experimenting, and iterating loop.

Virtuous Cycle

The virtuous cycle is a positive loop or a set of positive loops that trigger a non-linear growth. Indeed, in the context of digital platforms, virtuous cycles – also defined as flywheel models – help companies capture more market shares by accelerating growth. The classic example is Amazon’s lower prices driving more consumers, driving more sellers, thus improving variety and convenience, thus accelerating growth.

Growth Hacking

The growth hacking canvas is a tool and framework to have a set of processes that allow you to ask the right questions to generate growth ideas, consistently. 

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