what-happened-to-general-motors

What happened to General Motors?

General Motors (GM) is an American multinational company founded in 1908. By the 1931 to early 2000s, GE was among the most successful companies in America, and yet as the financial crisis hit in 2008, General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on June 8, 2009, after losing more than $90 billion in the previous four years. General Motors was effectively split in two during Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. The new company took GM’s best brands and operations, while the old company kept its massive liabilities.

Background

General Motors (GM) is an American multinational company with a core focus on the design and manufacture of vehicles, vehicle parts, and the selling of financial services.

It was founded in 1908 by William C. Durant, Charles Stewart Mott, and Frederic L. Smith.

GM enjoyed a 60% market share in the United States at its peak and was the worst’s largest automobile manufacturer from 1931 until 2007.

Thanks also to one of the most prominent CEOs of America’s history, Jack Welch:

However, by the 2000s, and as the financial crisis of 2008 hit the automaker industry very badly, General Motors filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization on June 8, 2009, after losing more than $90 billion in the previous four years.

The Government-backed deal saw the original company sell its assets and some subsidiaries to form a new company using the General Motors trademark.

Today, General Motors remains a significant global presence producing 6.829 million vehicles in 2020 with revenue of $122.48 billion

Following is a look at the fall and subsequent rebirth of the American giant.

Fixed operating costs

When General Motors experienced a decline in sales, it could not cut costs because many of its expenses were fixed.

This made the company somewhat unique as a manufacturer. In most cases, operating costs fall as sales fall because fewer units are being produced.

That is, the business can employ fewer staff and spend less money on raw materials. 

However, GM employees were on union contracts.

The company could have closed a manufacturing facility to reduce costs, but this did not guarantee employees would lose their jobs.

Union employees also received company pensions and health care coverage which were also fixed costs.

As a result, GM posted enormous losses as sales declined with expenditure remaining largely the same.

Automotive industry crisis

The so-called automotive industry crisis lasted from 2008 to 2010 and was the result of the Global Financial Crisis (GFC) and subsequent recession.

In the years before the GFC, General Motors invested heavily in SUVs and pick-up trucks with poor fuel economy.

As the recession pushed gasoline prices up, the company experienced a decline in sales as consumers looked to other makers for fuel-efficient cars.

This situation was made worse by a rise in the cost of raw materials.

Bankruptcy

Saddled with high levels of debt, GM predicted it would run out of cash by mid-2009 without government funding, a merger, or the sale of assets.

Government loans were then handed out to GM on the condition that it produced a plan for future financial viability.

The Obama administration then endorsed the sale of General Motors’ operational assets to a new company called NGMCO Inc. (or “New GM”).

The latter would take on GM’s most profitable brands and operations, leaving the former with most of the liabilities. 

The restructuring then took place before the bankruptcy filing to make the new company profitable.

This enabled proceedings to conclude in a matter of days and not be dragged out for years as creditors scrambled to recoup their costs.

Nevertheless, it became the largest industrial bankruptcy in history with General Motors $173 billion in debt.

Normal operations continued throughout the proceedings with operations outside the U.S. unaffected. The “new” General Motors then emerged just 40 days later.

Rebirth

General Motors then undertook a restructuring program. The company discontinued the Pontiac and Saturn brands and sold Saab to Dutch automaker Spyker.

It was left with four divisions: Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, and GMC. 

In 2010, GM held a momentous IPO and regained its title as the largest automaker in the world the following year.

Key takeaways:

  • General Motors is an American multinational automobile designer and manufacturer. It was the world’s largest automaker for 76 years before filing for bankruptcy in 2009.
  • General Motors was exposed in the wake of the GFC as rising gas prices saw consumers look elsewhere for fuel-efficient cars. GM also had several employee-related fixed costs which it had to meet as sales revenue declined.
  • General Motors was effectively split in two during Chapter 11 bankruptcy proceedings. The new company took GM’s best brands and operations, while the old company kept its massive liabilities. Pro-manufacturing U.S. governments helped underwrite the transition with the new GM holding an IPO in 2010.

Other Failure Stories

What Happened to WeWork

what-happened-to-wework
WeWork is a commercial real estate company providing shared workspaces for tech start-ups and other enterprise services. It was founded by Adam Neumann and Miguel McKelvey in 2010. WeWork’s business model was built on complex arrangements between the company and its landlords. There were also several conflicts of interest between Neumann and WeWork, which provided the impetus for the failed IPO and significant devaluation that would follow.

What Happened to Netscape

what-happened-to-netscape
Netscape – or Netscape Communications Corporation – was a computer services company best known for its web browser. The company was founded in 1994 by Marc Andreessen and James H. Clark as one of the internet’s first and most important start-ups. The Netscape Navigator web browser was released in 1995 and became the browser of choice for the users of the time. By November 1998, it had been acquired by AOL, which tried unsuccessfully to revive the popularity of the web browser. Ten years later, Netscape was shut down entirely.

What Happened to Musical.ly

what-happened-to-musically
Musically, or Musical.ly as it is officially known, was a Chinese social media platform headquartered in Shanghai. After passing 200 million users in May 2017, the platform was shut down by tech company ByteDance in November. After its acquisition, ByteDance suggested Musical.ly would continue to operate as a standalone platform. Company representatives noted that it would be able to leverage ByteDance’s AI technology and enormous reach in the Chinese market. Musically was ultimately absorbed into TikTok in June 2018, with the app no longer available in August of the same year. Existing users were offered technical support and several new features as a sweetener.

What Happened to Vine

what-happened-to-vine
Vine was an American video social networking platform with a focus on looping video clips of six seconds in length, founded by Dom Hofmann, Rus Yusupov, and Colin Kroll in 2012 to help people capture casual moments in their lives and share them with their friends. Vine went on to become a massively popular platform. Yet by 2016, Twitter discontinued the mobile app, allowing users to view or download content on the Vine website. It then announced a reconfigured app allowing creators to share content to a connected Twitter account only. This marked the end of Vine.

What Happened to CNN Plus

what-happened-to-cnn-plus
CNN Plus was a video streaming service and offshoot of CNN’s cable TV news network that was launched on March 29, 2022. The service was ultimately shut down just one month after it was launched. Trouble began for the platform when parent company WarnerMedia merged with Discovery. The latter was unimpressed with paltry viewer data and, with $55 billion in debt to clear, was not interested in funding CNN+ moving forward. Other contributing factors to CNN Plus’s demise include a lack of compelling content and streaming service market saturation.

What Happened to Clubhouse

what-happened-to-clubhouse
Clubhouse is a social app that allows thousands of people to communicate with each other in audio chat rooms. At one point, the company was worth $4 billion and boasted users such as Mark Zuckerberg and Elon Musk. Clubhouse declined because it rode the wave of pandemic lockdowns and suffered when people resumed their normal routines. The decision to remove the invite-only feature also caused a rapid influx of new members and removed any exclusivity. Clubhouse management also failed to define a business model and was unaware of the components of a successful social media site.

What Happened to Facebook

what-happened-to-facebook

Main Free Guides:

Scroll to Top
FourWeekMBA