Artificial Intelligence Vs. Machine Learning

Generalized AI consists of devices or systems that can handle all sorts of tasks on their own. The extension of generalized AI eventually led to the development of Machine learning. As an extension to AI, Machine Learning (ML) analyzes a series of computer algorithms to create a program that automates actions. Without explicitly programming actions, systems can learn and improve the overall experience. It explores large sets of data to find common patterns and formulate analytical models through learning.

AspectArtificial Intelligence (AI)Machine Learning (ML)
DefinitionArtificial Intelligence (AI) is a broad field of computer science that focuses on creating systems capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI encompasses a wide range of techniques and approaches, including ML.Machine Learning (ML) is a subfield of AI that involves the development of algorithms and models that enable computers to learn from and make predictions or decisions based on data without explicit programming. ML is a subset of AI.
Scope– AI has a broader scope and encompasses various subfields, including ML, natural language processing (NLP), computer vision, robotics, expert systems, and more. It seeks to replicate or simulate human-like intelligence in machines.– ML is a specific subfield of AI that focuses on the development of algorithms that can automatically learn and improve from data. ML is concerned with pattern recognition, prediction, and decision-making.
Learning Approach– AI encompasses various learning approaches, including rule-based systems, expert systems, knowledge representation, symbolic reasoning, planning, and more. It can involve both rule-based and data-driven methods.– ML is primarily focused on data-driven learning. It involves algorithms that learn patterns and relationships directly from data, making predictions or decisions based on observed patterns.
Human Intelligence– AI aims to replicate or simulate various aspects of human intelligence, such as reasoning, problem-solving, perception, language understanding, and decision-making.– ML, as a subset of AI, focuses on the specific task of learning from data. It may not replicate all aspects of human intelligence but excels in pattern recognition and prediction tasks.
Applications– AI applications include natural language processing (NLP) for language understanding, computer vision for image recognition, robotics for automation, expert systems for decision support, and autonomous vehicles, among others.– ML applications are diverse and include recommendation systems, fraud detection, image and speech recognition, predictive analytics, autonomous vehicles (with AI components), and more.
Training– AI systems may involve manual rule-based programming, symbolic reasoning, and domain-specific knowledge engineering. Some AI systems learn from data, but they can also incorporate handcrafted rules.– ML systems learn from data through statistical techniques and algorithms. They rely on large datasets for training, generalizing patterns, and improving over time.
Learning Types– AI encompasses various learning paradigms, including supervised learning, unsupervised learning, reinforcement learning, and more. Different AI systems may use different learning approaches.– ML primarily deals with supervised learning, unsupervised learning, and reinforcement learning. It is concerned with building predictive models and discovering patterns in data.
Data Dependency– AI systems may or may not heavily rely on data. Some AI systems are rule-based and do not require extensive data for operation. Others, like ML-driven AI, require data for learning and decision-making.– ML is inherently data-dependent and requires large datasets for training and evaluation. The quality and quantity of data significantly impact the performance of ML models.
Interpretability– AI systems can vary widely in interpretability. Some rule-based AI systems are highly interpretable, while others, particularly those using deep learning, may be less interpretable due to their complex architectures.– ML models can also vary in interpretability. Simple models like linear regression are highly interpretable, while complex models like deep neural networks can be challenging to interpret. Efforts are made to develop explainable ML models.
Complexity– AI systems can range from simple rule-based expert systems to complex neural networks. The complexity depends on the specific AI approach used.– ML models can vary in complexity, with some models being simple, such as linear regression, and others being highly complex, such as deep learning models with numerous layers.
Human Intervention– Some AI systems are designed to operate autonomously without human intervention, while others may require human guidance or supervision, particularly when dealing with uncertain or novel situations.– ML models initially require human intervention in the form of data labeling, model selection, and hyperparameter tuning. Once trained, they can operate autonomously.
AI Ethics and Bias– AI systems, including those driven by ML, raise ethical concerns related to bias, fairness, transparency, and accountability. Bias can emerge from biased training data or algorithmic decisions.– ML models, being a subset of AI, share the same ethical concerns. Researchers and practitioners are actively working to address bias and fairness issues in ML algorithms.
Hardware Requirements– AI systems can vary in their hardware requirements. Some AI applications, like rule-based expert systems, can run on standard hardware. Others, particularly AI with deep learning, may require specialized hardware, such as GPUs or TPUs.– ML models, including deep learning models, may also benefit from specialized hardware accelerators but can often run on standard computer hardware. Hardware requirements depend on the model’s complexity and the size of the dataset.
Future Trends– The future of AI involves advancements in various subfields, including reinforcement learning, explainable AI, autonomous systems, AI ethics, and more. AI is expected to continue influencing automation and decision-making across industries.– The future of ML includes improvements in model efficiency, interpretability, and fairness. Transfer learning, federated learning, and automated machine learning (AutoML) are areas of ongoing development in ML. ML will continue to drive data-driven decision-making.

Artificial Intelligence Vs Machine Learning

Artificial intelligence and machine learning emerged over recent years and are interchangeable. As part of the advancements in computer science, these technologies have integrated into intelligent systems.

Although closely similar to one another, AI and ML are still considered two different concepts in various cases.

Overall, artificial intelligence and machine learning are not being advanced to replace human intelligence. Instead, tech and business leverage these technologies to support modern breakthroughs.

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a computer science field that establishes a computer system in close resemblance to human intelligence. Instead of programming codes that execute an action, they make use of algorithms to work.

AI devices and systems are designed primarily to perform intelligently. To better understand how AI works, here are groups that classify under this system:

Generalized Artificial Intelligence

Generalized AI consists of devices or systems that can handle all sorts of tasks on their own. The extension of generalized AI eventually led to the development of Machine learning.

Applied Artificial Intelligence

Applied AI automates specific actions upon collecting, analyzing, and gaining insights through data. It is utilized to trade stocks and shares or maneuver an autonomous vehicle and is commonly found in AI systems and devices.

As an extension to AI, Machine Learning (ML) analyzes a series of computer algorithms to create a program that automates actions. Without explicitly programming actions, systems can learn and improve the overall experience. It explores large sets of data to find common patterns and formulate analytical models through learning.

For instance, augmenting a machine learning program into a reasonable amount of data of x-ray pictures can create a system that automates the analysis of x-ray.

The program utilizes the descriptions of various x-ray pictures to develop an analytical model for it. After finding common patterns within a considerable dataset,  the program would also define differences through comparable indications.

The previous data is its basis for comprehending new x-ray images that get entered into the system. The AI breakthrough became one of the most recent in the healthcare system, used to achieve human-level performance for x-ray segmentation.

Unsupervised learning

The current AI paradigm has been completely reshaped since 2017. Indeed, in the previous AI paradigm, most of the learning that the machine learning model performed was primarily based on small datasets and supervised learning.

Supervised vs. unsupervised learning describes two main types of tasks within the field of machine learning. In supervised learning, the researcher teaches the algorithm the conclusions or predictions it should make. In Unsupervised Learning, the model has algorithms able to discover and then present inferences about data. There is no teacher or single correct answer. Thus the machine learns by itself.

This approach helped produce good narrow machine-learning applications that could not generalize across tasks.

A small, structured dataset was needed to make those machine-learning models viable via supervised learning.

Yet a real turning point came when unsupervised learning was used as the primary approach to training machine learning models, and this has become viable, thanks to the transformer architecture.

The transformer architecture – sometimes referred to as the transformer neural network or transformer model – is an architecture that endeavors to solve sequence-to-sequence tasks while easily handling long-range dependencies.

The transformer architecture, finally, made it possible for machine learning models to improve via unsupervised learning.

And the key turning point was that those unsupervised learning models could be trained on a massive amount of unstructured data. In what’s called pre-training.


With pre-training, it was finally possible to leverage unsupervised learning approaches to have the machine learning model learn on a massive amount of unstructured data.

From this, it would eventually learn to perform multiple general tasks.

Indeed, throughout this pre-training process, via unsupervised learning, on a massive amount of data, and more and more parameters, the machine learning models started to pick up patterns from data, from a simple objective function (text-to-text prediction), thus learned sort of heuristics to deal with various tasks.

Once the pre-training phase is over, you get a generalized AI engine that needs to be fine-tuned.


In the fine-tuning phase, the machine learning models get trained on specific examples to make them able to pick up narrow tasks from their ability to generalize across tasks.

Once the fine-tuning process is done, the machine learning model is able to infer the context later on through an emergent property called in-context learning or prompting.

In-context learning

One of the most remarkable emergent properties (abilities of machine learning models that came out due to scale) was in-context learning via prompting.

In fact, prompt engineering enables users to provide context to the machine learning model (in a natural language format), so that the model can completely change its output, based on that context.

Prompt engineering is a natural language processing (NLP) concept that involves discovering inputs that yield desirable or useful results. Prompting is the equivalent of telling the Genius in the magic lamp what to do. In this case, the magic lamp is DALL-E, ready to generate any image you wish for. 

Prompt engineering has proved extremely powerful, and it’s the modern coding paradigm, where there is a mixture of back-end and front-end and a revolution in software development.

Indeed, with prompt engineering, we really move toward a no-code revolution, where UI (user interfaces) and UX (user experience) can be built on the fly by simply describing the machine learning model and what application you want it to execute.

The Generative AI Revolution

In 2017, a new machine learning architecture for large language models, called Transformer architecture, changed the whole AI landscape.

The transformer architecture – sometimes referred to as the transformer neural network or transformer model – is an architecture that endeavors to solve sequence-to-sequence tasks while easily handling long-range dependencies.

The interesting part of it?

A good chunk of what made ChatGPT incredibly effective is a kind of architecture called “Transformer,” which was developed by a bunch of Google scholars at Google Brain and Google Research.

Indeed, this architecture enabled the development of large language models (machine learning models which had been pre-trained with the simple goal of performing text-to-text predictions) by scaling them up.

Once you could fetch more data into these models and enable them to handle more parameters, you got more generalized abilities for these models.

Which turned, into general-purpose engines able to handle a wide amount of tasks, at scale.

This paradigm made us move from an era of discovery, where users could quickly find things based on their interests to generative, where users can finally generate on the fly very customized experiences.

 Yet, what made ChatGPT hugely effective, was an additional layer on top of it called InstructGPT! 

That might unleash what I like to call real-world generative experiences.

Those are:

  • Real-time served on the fly.
  • Grounded, highly relevant to the user to which they are served.
  • Contextual, able to infer the context, thus dynamically changing.
  • Hyper-personalized, different for each user (just like a stream of consciousness is different from person to person).
  • And interactive, the user will be able to change them on the fly!

Increasing Demand for Skills in AI and ML in the Labor Market

Recent reports have revealed the increasing demand for skills in AI and ML in the labor market today. In light of digitization, businesses leverage artificial intelligence to improve their operations and services. Experts found that these technical skills are most likely in demand in finance, marketing, and tech industries.

When COVID-19 struck the world, the economy was dramatically affected as well. The rates of unemployment spiked, but careers in AI remained steadfast amidst the crisis. When this revelation was made public, it pushed a majority of businesses to leverage AI into digital transformation and adaptation.

Leveraging AI and ML for Business Growth

Emerging businesses utilize artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning toward growth. From design automated assistants, employee management systems to applying deep learning to establish new products, these technologies contributed to our society’s progression.

Healthcare, finance, and many other businesses leveraged the potential of AI and ML to drive their business goals. These systems offer innovative solutions that automate crucial decisions, personalize marketing, and push them towards digital transformation. Ultimately, AI and ML provide an opportunity for digital entrepreneurs to establish effective and innovative business strategies.

The application of AI and ML became the forefront of industry leaders that provide faster, smarter, and more cost-effective products. Apart from products, these systems have also improved digital marketing practices. Extensive data analytics help entrepreneurs obtain valuable insight into their customers. As a result, they can curate their marketing strategies according to their target audience. The result was a higher response value and, more importantly, a significant competitive edge against their direct competitors.

Produce Relevant and Quality Content

The application of artificial intelligence and machine learning allows businesses to produce relevant and quality content. When it comes to e-commerce and digitization, SEO and web traffic are vital.

It is essential for brands to gain traction and online presence to be able to be recognized. With AI and ML, businesses can design their content to become more responsive and immersive to their target audience.

For example, a growing number of brands utilize customer queries to produce content. They create content that answers the most commonly asked questions to engage with their audience.

Even search engines are powered by artificial intelligence now. Google, Bing, and other search engines utilize AI to accommodate searcher intent. Deep learning algorithms play a fundamental role in ranking search results.

Through machine learning, factors like topic relevance, reader-friendliness, and authenticity get analyzed to display quality content.

As a result, more brands acknowledge the importance of producing relevant and quality content to achieve better rankings. It predominantly affects how the audiences address your content along with your products and services. Therefore, digital entrepreneurs apply machine learning to gather information and predict product trends. The opportunity to implement this technology allowed them to anticipate the approach that can likely drive their desired outcomes.

Offer Personalized Experiences that are Unique to Users

AI and ML interventions help digital entrepreneurs improve the overall customer experience. These technologies can improve engagement, extend retention, personalize user experience, and, most of all, boost revenue. Search engine optimization (SEO), a prominent AI application has dominated the world of digital marketing.

Apart from contributing to increasing web traffic, SEO offers personalized experiences that are unique to users. Algorithms set a unique, customized experience for users that interact with the brand. User individuality yields a unique treatment to every customer.

With the use of AI and ML, brands can accommodate the preferences of their audience. Utilizing SEO is also significantly cheaper while offering long-term benefits to businesses of any sort. Thus, companies can find cost-effective solutions suitable to the unique situations of their target market.

Generate Automated Responses Through Deep Learning

A majority of businesses utilize AI and ML to improve their business operations. These interventions transform how products get produced, marketed, and displayed. Artificial Intelligence now handles a large portion of marketing campaigns too.

With the use of algorithms and advanced analytics, entrepreneurs optimize strategies that can yield the best results. These campaigns get tailored depending on the geographical, demographical, and socioeconomic factors of their audiences. On top of that, customer behaviors are anticipated and predicted through a massive set of data.

To put everything in perspective, AI and ML play a fundamental role in optimizing major business decisions. These systems can facilitate valuable interaction through machine learning from the patterns collected from data.

With these patterns, AI performs segmentation to differentiate every user and their projected experience. Thus, each customer that visits the e-commerce website is examined thoroughly before the chatbot generates a response.

The algorithm allows automated responses that are tailored based on user preferences. Not only can it improve the customer experience but also streamlines lead generation.

Analysis of data is lucrative in AI and ML, which allows them to get to know us better. Volumes of user data create patterns and trends that generate our preferences and predict our needs. Additionally, AI and ML open opportunities to improve business marketing strategies.

Key Similarities between Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML):

  • Both Aim to Mimic Human Intelligence: Both AI and ML are fields of computer science that seek to mimic human intelligence and enable machines to perform tasks that typically require human cognitive abilities.
  • Data-Driven Approach: Both AI and ML heavily rely on data to train their models and make informed decisions. Data is crucial for learning patterns, making predictions, and improving performance.

Key Differences between Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML):

  • Scope and Definition: AI is a broader field that encompasses various approaches to creating intelligent systems, including rule-based systems, expert systems, natural language processing, etc. ML is a specific subfield of AI that focuses on algorithms and statistical techniques to enable machines to learn from data.
  • Human Intervention: AI may require explicit programming and human expertise to define rules and expert knowledge for the system to follow. In contrast, ML can reduce the need for explicit human intervention as the system learns from data.

Overlaps between Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Machine Learning (ML):

  • Data Utilization: Both AI and ML heavily rely on data to function effectively. AI systems can use data to improve decision-making, and ML algorithms require data to learn patterns and make predictions.
  • Task Automation: Both AI and ML aim to automate tasks that were traditionally performed by humans. AI systems can automate complex decision-making processes, while ML algorithms can automate tasks like image recognition and natural language processing.

Key Takeaways:

  • AI and ML Complement Each Other: AI and ML are not competing technologies; rather, ML is an extension of AI that enhances its capabilities. ML enables AI systems to learn and adapt from data, making them more intelligent and efficient.
  • Data is the Key: Both AI and ML heavily rely on data for their success. High-quality and relevant data is crucial for training accurate and reliable AI and ML models.
  • Continuous Learning: ML enables continuous learning for AI systems, allowing them to adapt and improve their performance over time. This aspect is vital in dynamic and evolving environments.
  • Limitations and Challenges: While AI and ML have made significant advancements, they still have limitations and challenges to overcome, such as bias in data, interpretability of models, and ethical considerations.
  • AI and ML in Real-World Applications: AI and ML have a wide range of real-world applications, including virtual assistants, autonomous vehicles, personalized recommendations, fraud detection, healthcare diagnostics, and more. Their use is rapidly increasing in various industries to drive innovation and efficiency.

Read Next: Business Engineer, Business Designer.

Connected Business Frameworks And Analyses

AI Paradigm




Large Language Models

Large language models (LLMs) are AI tools that can read, summarize, and translate text. This enables them to predict words and craft sentences that reflect how humans write and speak.

Generative Models


Prompt Engineering

Prompt engineering is a natural language processing (NLP) concept that involves discovering inputs that yield desirable or useful results. Like most processes, the quality of the inputs determines the quality of the outputs in prompt engineering. Designing effective prompts increases the likelihood that the model will return a response that is both favorable and contextual. Developed by OpenAI, the CLIP (Contrastive Language-Image Pre-training) model is an example of a model that utilizes prompts to classify images and captions from over 400 million image-caption pairs.


AIOps is the application of artificial intelligence to IT operations. It has become particularly useful for modern IT management in hybridized, distributed, and dynamic environments. AIOps has become a key operational component of modern digital-based organizations, built around software and algorithms.

Machine Learning

Machine Learning Ops (MLOps) describes a suite of best practices that successfully help a business run artificial intelligence. It consists of the skills, workflows, and processes to create, run, and maintain machine learning models to help various operational processes within organizations.

Continuous Intelligence

The business intelligence models have transitioned to continuous intelligence, where dynamic technology infrastructure is coupled with continuous deployment and delivery to provide continuous intelligence. In short, the software offered in the cloud will integrate with the company’s data, leveraging on AI/ML to provide answers in real-time to current issues the organization might be experiencing.

Continuous Innovation

That is a process that requires a continuous feedback loop to develop a valuable product and build a viable business model. Continuous innovation is a mindset where products and services are designed and delivered to tune them around the customers’ problems and not the technical solution of its founders.

Technological Modeling

Technological modeling is a discipline to provide the basis for companies to sustain innovation, thus developing incremental products. While also looking at breakthrough innovative products that can pave the way for long-term success. In a sort of Barbell Strategy, technological modeling suggests having a two-sided approach, on the one hand, to keep sustaining continuous innovation as a core part of the business model. On the other hand, it places bets on future developments that have the potential to break through and take a leap forward.

Business Engineering


Tech Business Model Template

A tech business model is made of four main components: value model (value propositions, missionvision), technological model (R&D management), distribution model (sales and marketing organizational structure), and financial model (revenue modeling, cost structure, profitability and cash generation/management). Those elements coming together can serve as the basis to build a solid tech business model.

OpenAI Business Model

OpenAI has built the foundational layer of the AI industry. With large generative models like GPT-3 and DALL-E, OpenAI offers API access to businesses that want to develop applications on top of its foundational models while being able to plug these models into their products and customize these models with proprietary data and additional AI features. On the other hand, OpenAI also released ChatGPT, developing around a freemium model. Microsoft also commercializes opener products through its commercial partnership.


OpenAI and Microsoft partnered up from a commercial standpoint. The history of the partnership started in 2016 and consolidated in 2019, with Microsoft investing a billion dollars into the partnership. It’s now taking a leap forward, with Microsoft in talks to put $10 billion into this partnership. Microsoft, through OpenAI, is developing its Azure AI Supercomputer while enhancing its Azure Enterprise Platform and integrating OpenAI’s models into its business and consumer products (GitHub, Office, Bing).

Stability AI Business Model

Stability AI is the entity behind Stable Diffusion. Stability makes money from our AI products and from providing AI consulting services to businesses. Stability AI monetizes Stable Diffusion via DreamStudio’s APIs. While it also releases it open-source for anyone to download and use. Stability AI also makes money via enterprise services, where its core development team offers the chance to enterprise customers to service, scale, and customize Stable Diffusion or other large generative models to their needs.

Stability AI Ecosystem


Main Guides:

About The Author

Scroll to Top