What Is The ABC Model? The ABC Model In A Nutshell

The ABC model is a technique used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). It helps individuals understand the meaning of their reactions to adversity; developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis to explain why different people have different reactions to stress and adversity, the ABC model is an acronym of three components that explain how a person perceives an external event: adversity, belief, and consequence.

ConceptThe ABC Model is a psychological framework used in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other therapeutic approaches to understand and address emotional and behavioral responses to events or situations. It stands for “Activating Event,” “Belief,” and “Consequence.” The model suggests that our beliefs about activating events influence our emotional and behavioral responses, ultimately leading to specific consequences. By identifying and challenging irrational beliefs, individuals can manage their emotions and behaviors more effectively.
Key ComponentsThe ABC Model consists of the following components:
Activating Event (A): This is the initial event or situation that triggers a person’s emotional response. It can be an external event, such as criticism from a colleague, or an internal event, like a negative thought or memory.
Belief (B): Beliefs are the thoughts, attitudes, and interpretations that individuals hold about the activating event. These beliefs can be rational (e.g., “Constructive criticism helps me improve”) or irrational (e.g., “I must always be perfect, and criticism means I’m a failure”).
Consequence (C): Consequences are the emotional and behavioral outcomes that result from an individual’s beliefs about the activating event. These consequences can be positive, negative, or neutral. For example, if someone holds irrational beliefs, they may experience anxiety, anger, or self-criticism (negative consequences).
ApplicationThe ABC Model is widely used in psychotherapy, particularly in CBT, to help individuals understand and manage their emotional reactions and behaviors. It is applicable to various life situations, including stress, anxiety, depression, and relationship conflicts. – In practice, therapists guide clients through the ABC process to identify their activating events, uncover irrational beliefs, and explore the emotional and behavioral consequences.
BenefitsThe ABC Model offers several benefits:
Emotional Regulation: By identifying and challenging irrational beliefs, individuals can learn to manage their emotions more effectively, reducing feelings of anxiety, anger, and sadness.
Behavioral Change: Recognizing the connection between beliefs and behaviors allows individuals to modify their responses to situations and make more adaptive choices.
Self-Awareness: The model encourages self-reflection and increased awareness of thought patterns, fostering personal growth and resilience.
ChallengesChallenges associated with the ABC Model include:
Identifying Irrational Beliefs: Recognizing irrational beliefs can be difficult, as they are often deeply ingrained and automatic.
Resistance to Change: Some individuals may resist challenging their beliefs or find it challenging to adopt new, more rational beliefs.
Application in Real-Time: Applying the ABC Model in real-time situations can be challenging, as it requires practice and self-awareness.
Real-World ApplicationThe ABC Model is applied in various therapeutic settings, including individual therapy, group therapy, and self-help programs. – It is often used to address specific issues such as test anxiety, public speaking anxiety, and social anxiety by helping individuals reframe their beliefs and manage emotional responses.

Understanding the ABC model

The ABC model was developed by American psychologist Albert Ellis to explain why different people have different reactions to stress and adversity.

For example, why does one person caught in traffic honk the horn in anger while another tunes into relaxing music on the radio? 

Many individuals believe they must act a certain way in response to negative events.

However, Ellis found the actions of the individual were based on their thoughts about negative events.

Put differently, emotion and behavior are not determined by the event itself but the way in which the event is cognitively processed and evaluated.

The ABC model is effective in helping people change unhelpful or unhealthy ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving.

Outside of a traditional doctor-patient environment, it is used by carers working in residential settings and also by teachers who have disruptive children in the classroom.

The three components of the ABC model

The ABC model is an acronym of three components that explain how a person perceives an external event:

Adversity (A)

The situation or event that triggers an emotional response.

For example, delivering a presentation in front of senior management is an event that triggers anxiety or fear in many employees.

For this reason, this component is sometimes referred to as the “Activating Event”.

Belief (B)

Our explanation of why the situation or event occurred.

The ABC model separates beliefs into two categories: rational and irrational.

Rational beliefs

Rational beliefs tend to be non-extreme, flexible, and rooted in logic.

Those who hold rational beliefs exhibit greater acceptance of self and others and possess a high tolerance for frustration. 

Here are a few examples of rational beliefs:

  • “Mark was rude to me all afternoon. He must be having a bad day.”
  • “Eric seemed distracting during the presentation. Maybe his looming performance review caused him to become preoccupied.”

Irrational beliefs

While rational beliefs are non-extreme, flexible, and logical, irrational beliefs are extreme, rigid, and illogical.

The individual who believes irrationally assumes negative things will happen, possesses a low frustration tolerance, and tends to be self-deprecative. 

They also tend to catastrophize or “awfulize”. In other words, they exaggerate their difficulties or believe the situation is worse than it is.

Here are a few examples of irrational beliefs (notice how they differ from the rational belief examples provided above):

  • “Mark was rude to me all afternoon. It’s because I spoke up in the morning meeting.”
  • “Eric seemed distracted during the presentation. I’ve never been a good presenter and have trouble holding the attention of the audience.”

Consequence (C)

The consequence describes the behavioral and emotional response that follows the belief. If an employee believes their co-worker distrusts them, they may feel hurt or angry.

If they believe they are out of their depth in their current role, they may feel anxious or inadequate.

Rational beliefs lead to healthy consequences, while irrational beliefs lead to unhealthy consequences. The employee who believes Mark is having a bad day does not internalize his rude behavior and instead decides to give him some space. 

The employee who notices a distracted audience member continues with the presentation and re-directs their focus to those who are still attentive.

Some clinicians use a further two components to help patients transition to more productive ways of thinking.

Let’s take a look at these two components in the sections below.

Disputation (D)

Disputation is Or the questioning of an irrational belief to make it a rational belief. For example, a young woman may consider herself to be a social outcast after not receiving a party invitation.

Her irrational belief that nobody likes her may cause sadness, anger, and frustration.

However, she then disputes her self-critical thoughts. Being overlooked for one party does not make her unlikeable, especially since she was invited to three other parties in the previous month.

What’s more, she barely knew the person organizing the party – so it’s perhaps no surprise she wasn’t invited. In any case, the woman realizes that her thoughts are simply thoughts.

They do not have the power to determine what sort of person she is or how she behaves.

By this stage of the ABC model, the individual should have a sound understanding of what triggers them. the belief system they use to perceive events, and how they tend to act in response. 

Whatever the event, it is important that the individual challenges their belief structure and seeks to replace it with something more beneficial. Questions that a business coach may employ at this stage include:

  • What is the usefulness of your current belief system?
  • Do your beliefs help you?
  • What would happen if you adopted a different belief system?
  • How would a different system lead to different outcomes?
  • What are those outcomes?

New effect (E)

Based on answers to the above question, the employee or individual in question replaces their old beliefs with a set of new ones.

When an irrational belief is successfully disputed, the emotional and behavioral response that follows is likely to be based on rationality and an increased perspective.

By rejecting an irrational thought and replacing it with something more realistic, the woman does not react negatively to being overlooked for the party.

To avoid reacting negatively to a similar situation in the future, she may choose to write a formal commitment to adopting rational thoughts.

ABC model examples

The ABC model is relevant to numerous clinical and non-clinical situations.

A few of these are described explained below to show how an individual can use the model to practice healthier ways of thinking.

Interaction with a co-worker

  • Activating event – when Mary arrives at work one day, her co-worker Terrence walks past her desk without saying a word or acknowledging her presence.
  • Beliefs about the event – Mary takes the perceived indiscretion personally and she is immediately reminded of a minor disagreement the pair had over a month previous. 
  • Consequences of the event – Mary feels disrespected, angry, and resentful toward Terrence for not making the effort to greet her.

Mary then returns to the activating event and utilizes the extra two components of the model we discussed earlier: Disputation and New Effect. 

Her notes read as follows:

  • Disputation of the event – why else may Terrence have ignored me that morning? Perhaps he had been in a car accident and was a little flustered. Or maybe he’d just had an argument with his spouse on the phone before entering the office. Whatever the reason, it left him distracted and likely had nothing to do with me. I am sure that Terrence will interact with me later in the day when he is ready.
  • New effect – instead of believing that Terrence’s actions are personal and the result of a minor disagreement, I choose to believe that in all likelihood, he has forgotten about the conversation and in any case, is not the sort of person to hold a grudge. For the rest of the day, I will not waste any more time expelling energy on an issue that does not concern me.

Interaction with a superior

  • Activating event – later in the month, Mary is asked by her boss Matt if she has completed preliminary research on an important marketing campaign.
  • Beliefs about the event – upon hearing the question, Mary thinks to herself “Matt doesn’t believe I work hard enough” and “He is trying to catch me out like he did with Tony yesterday.
  • Consequences of the event – believing the question to be a trap, Mary reacts defensively to the question and answers that she is nearly finished with the research despite this being untrue. She feels annoyed for being singled out and frustrated at herself for the way she reacted.

During her lunch break that day, Mary returns to the activating event and thinks about how the situation could have been handled differently.

She also discusses the situation at her next appointment with a therapist:

  • Disputation of the event – Mary’s therapist lets her know that her assumption that Matt believes she is lazy is an example of fortune telling. This is a cognitive distortion where one predicts a negative outcome without considering the odds of that outcome. The therapist then encourages Mary to consider whether the available evidence really justifies her beliefs. In all likelihood, Matt was acting as any boss should in asking for a progress report.
  • New effect – to reduce the likelihood of a similar reaction in the future, Mary develops a balancing statement to keep things in perspective. One of these reads as follows: “There is a chance Matt believes I am a lazy worker, but it’s more likely he put me on the spot because the deadline was imminent, and he was receiving pressure from his own boss to deliver. I also recognize that my anxiety related to the unfinished work and then having to lie about it compounded the problem. This is nothing to do with Matt.

Key takeaways

  • The ABC model is a form of cognitive behavioral therapy. It was developed by psychologist Albert Ellis, who discovered that individuals react negatively to their thoughts about an event – and not the event itself.
  • The ABC model has three components that explain how a person reacts to an external event: adversity, belief, and consequence. Some clinicians supplement the model with two more components to help the individual adopt healthier beliefs.
  • The ABC model is used by psychologists to treat patients with poor mental health. It is also used by carers in residential facilities and in schools to treat disruptive children.

Extending the ABC Model with the ABC-X Model

The ABC-X model is a behavioral framework that was initially devised to describe the impact of crises on families. 

Understanding the ABC-X model

The ABC-X model was created by American sociologist Reuben Hill in 1958.

Based on prior research conducted by himself and his colleagues, Hill developed the model to explain “the crisis-proneness and freedom from crisis among families”.

According to the conceptual framework on which the model is based, multiple environments influence a family’s crisis experience and multiple paths of recovery from that crisis.

These paths, Hill posited, are mostly determined by the family’s available resources and coping mechanisms.

The ABC-X model was revolutionary for its day and now forms the basis for the vast majority of family stress frameworks.

It has also been adapted for business in the study of employee resilience, an area we’ll describe in more detail in the sections that follow.

The conceptual framework of the ABC-X model

Let’s use this section to take a look at the four elements of the ABC-X model.

A – The crisis-precipitating event or stressor

Hill defined events or stressors as any “situation for which the family has had little or no prior preparation and must therefore be viewed as problematic.” 

He noted that families were affected differently by an event based on the hardships that accompanied the event.

Hardships can simply be thought of as complications of a stressor or event that demand resources from the family.

Hill used the example of a family where the father was sent off to war.

The hardships, in this instance, would be a loss of income, inadequacies related to housing, and behavioral problems with the children resulting from the loss of a parental figure. 

B – The family’s crisis-meeting resources

These are resources that either:

  • Keep the family from crisis when present (“crisis-proofness”), or
  • Plunge the family into crisis when absent (“crisis-proneness”). 

Hill defined a family’s crisis-meeting resources based on the work of Angell (1936) and examples include family adaptability and integration.

C – The definition the family makes of the event

In other words, the family’s perception of the crisis or its subjective definition of the event and its associated hardships.

Families who tended to believe that stressor events would cause a crisis were more crisis-prone.

X – The crisis or resulting stress

This part of the framework deals with the negative impact (outcomes or consequences) of the crisis on the family unit or individual.

Hill noted that the crisis would alter familial role patterns, shift expectations, and impact the affections or emotions of parents.

The ABC-X model in business

In a 2016 article in Industrial and Organizational Psychology, researchers from the University of Georgia adapted the ABC-X model to the study of employee resilience.

The researchers believed this adaptation served two purposes.

For one, the ABC-X model was seen as a way to accurately measure resilient processes within organizations. 

It was also hoped that the model would enable other academics to develop theories based on connections between industrial and organizational research and various employee variables.

This would later involve subject areas such as the work-family interface, employee stress and emotions, extreme work conditions, and the nature of workplace relationships. 

With that in mind, here is a brief look at how the framework of the model is relevant to employee resilience.

The event (A) 

For employees, the event could be a work or non-work stressor that interferes with their overall performance and well-being.

Examples include the transition to parenthood, the death of a close family member, workplace harassment, or termination/demotion.

Employee resources (B) 

This may encompass an individual’s social support network, financial resources, or personal skills.

At the organizational level, resources may include co-worker support, culture, and family-friendly policies that offer services such as after-school child supervision.

Employee perceptions (C) 

The perception of the stressor is intricately linked with the employee’s ability to find meaning in their life and work.

Negative events can lead to learned helplessness and burnout for individuals in menial positions, while those in more meaningful roles are likely to perceive the stressor as something they can recover from.

The crisis and resulting stress (X)

In addition to burnout and learned helplessness, the employee may feel unmotivated and disengaged at work and experience an increase in work-family conflict.

The Double ABC-X model

The Double ABC-X model is an expansion of the original ABC-X model. Developed by family scientists Joan Patterson and Hamilton McCubbin in the early 1980s, the model features:

  • Extra life stressors and strains.
  • Revisions to the family’s definition of a crisis (C).
  • Psychological, social, and intrafamilial resources. 
  • The addition of family coping strategies, and
  • An expanded range of potential outcomes.

Furthermore, the Double ABC-X model describes a family or employee’s response to a crisis in the context of three phases: precrisis, crisis, and postcrisis. These phases and the components of each are explained below.


In business contexts, the precrisis phase is comprised of three components:

  1. Adverse event. 
  2. Employee resources, and
  3. Employee perception.

These components are similar to the A, B, and C components of the ABC-X model framework.


The crisis phase is equivalent to the X component of the ABC-X model framework.

Remember, this is the negative impact of the event on the individual.


The third postcrisis phase is where the Double ABC-X model differs significantly from its predecessor.

Let’s describe each component of the postcrisis phase in more detail.

Pileup (aA) 

This component is designated aA because it describes the pileup of stressors (a) on top of the initial stressor (A). Additional stressors arise from:

  • Hardships arising from the initial stressor that become chronic – for example, employees who are terminated may be unable to pay their rent or buy food.
  • Transitions – the same employee may experience hardship when transitioning to a new job or career with a lower income or where they are required to move beyond their comfort zone to succeed.
  • Consequences – the employee may be negatively stereotyped by others for not being able to hold down a job.
  • Boundary or social ambiguity – in this case, boundary ambiguity refers to uncertainty. In other words, the employee may feel additional stress because they are unsure as to whether they can replace their income or find a new job. Social ambiguity refers to an absence of norms or procedures that help individuals deal with stressful situations. 

Existing and new resources (bB) 

In the Double ABC-X model, b represents any resource that existed precrisis.

The uppercase B, on the other hand, describes resources that are developed by the employee to cope with the crisis itself.

Existing resources include friends, mental health professionals, role flexibility, and favorable company culture.

New resources may include educational and/or training opportunities, job networks, self-sufficiency, community groups, religious organizations, and clubs.

Perception and coherence (cC) 

The third component of the postcrisis phase is also somewhat different from Hill’s initial work. Here are some definitions:

  • c – the perception or definition of the stressor that caused the crisis, and
  • C – the perception or definition of the crisis, pileup, and existing or new resources. This is expressed as cC = x + aA + bB.

Coherence is a process that occurs between the crisis and adaptation to the crisis. It is dynamically influenced by the employee’s experiences, which include their internal environment (e.g. perceived strengths) and external environment (or the cumulative effect of both positive and negative experiences).

Returning to our example, perception and coherence shape the meaning the employee gives to being terminated and the subsequent stressors and experiences that result.

One employee may see termination as a chance to pursue a career they are more passionate about while another may believe it is the end of their working career.


The final component of postcrisis is adaptation.

At this point in the Double ABC-X model, systems that govern how the employee relates to crises have evolved with long-term positive or negative consequences.

Note also that adaptation is a continuous variable that occurs along a spectrum:

  • Maladaptation – the negative end of the spectrum characterized by a chronic imbalance between the employee’s demands and their ability to meet those demands. This imbalance may cause a jobless employee to suffer from poor mental and physical health, among other things.
  • Bonadaptation – the positive end of the spectrum where there are only minor discrepancies between the employee’s demands and capabilities. For example, a well-qualified or skilled employee in a growing industry can easily find work at another company to meet their needs.

Key takeaways

  • The ABC-X model is a behavioral framework with a core focus on describing the impact of crises on families.
  • The conceptual framework of the ABC-X model describes four components: the crisis-precipitating event, the family’s crisis-meeting resources, the family’s perception of the crisis, and the negative outcomes or consequences of the crisis.
  • The ABC-X model has also been adapted to study employee resilience and other theories based on the interaction of employee variables and industrial or organizational research.

ABC Model Highlights:

  • Definition and Purpose: The ABC model is a cognitive-behavioral therapy technique developed by Albert Ellis. It explains how people’s reactions to adverse events are influenced by their beliefs about those events, rather than the events themselves.
  • Components of the Model:
    • Adversity (A): The external event or stressor that triggers a response.
    • Belief (B): How an individual interprets or explains the event, which can be rational or irrational.
    • Consequence (C): The emotional and behavioral response that follows the belief about the event.
  • Application and Impact: The ABC model helps individuals change unhelpful thought patterns and behaviors. It’s used in therapy settings as well as by caregivers and educators to address various situations.

ABC-X Model Highlights:

  • Extension of ABC Model: The ABC-X model was developed by Reuben Hill and extended by Joan Patterson and Hamilton McCubbin. It expands the ABC model to incorporate additional factors and phases related to coping with crises and stressors.
  • Components of the Model:
    • Adverse Event (A): The initial stressor or crisis-triggering event.
    • Crisis-Meeting Resources (B): The resources that help prevent or exacerbate a crisis.
    • Perception of the Event (C): How individuals interpret and define the event.
    • Negative Impact (X): The resulting emotional and behavioral consequences of the crisis.
  • Additional Phases:
    • Precrisis Phase: Includes the adverse event, resources, and perception of the event.
    • Crisis Phase: Focuses on the negative impact of the crisis.
    • Postcrisis Phase: Incorporates pileup of stressors, existing and new resources, perception and coherence, and adaptation.
  • Business Application: The ABC-X model has been adapted for business settings to study employee resilience and how individuals respond to work-related stressors and crises.

What are the 3 stages of ABC model?

The three main components are:

Some also use two further components:

What is an example of the ABC model?

What is ABC learning model?

The ABC is the acronym of three components that explain how a person perceives an external event: adversity, belief, and consequence, and it is used by psychologists to treat patients with poor mental health. It is also used by carers in residential facilities and in schools to treat disruptive children.

Connected Leadership Concepts And Frameworks

Leadership Styles

Leadership styles encompass the behavioral qualities of a leader. These qualities are commonly used to direct, motivate, or manage groups of people. Some of the most recognized leadership styles include Autocratic, Democratic, or Laissez-Faire leadership styles.

Agile Leadership

Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Adaptive Leadership

Adaptive leadership is a model used by leaders to help individuals adapt to complex or rapidly changing environments. Adaptive leadership is defined by three core components (precious or expendable, experimentation and smart risks, disciplined assessment). Growth occurs when an organization discards ineffective ways of operating. Then, active leaders implement new initiatives and monitor their impact.

Blue Ocean Leadership

Authors and strategy experts Chan Kim and Renée Mauborgne developed the idea of blue ocean leadership. In the same way that Kim and Mauborgne’s blue ocean strategy enables companies to create uncontested market space, blue ocean leadership allows companies to benefit from unrealized employee talent and potential.

Delegative Leadership

Developed by business consultants Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey in the 1960s, delegative leadership is a leadership style where authority figures empower subordinates to exercise autonomy. For this reason, it is also called laissez-faire leadership. In some cases, this type of leadership can lead to increases in work quality and decision-making. In a few other cases, this type of leadership needs to be balanced out to prevent a lack of direction and cohesiveness of the team.

Distributed Leadership

Distributed leadership is based on the premise that leadership responsibilities and accountability are shared by those with the relevant skills or expertise so that the shared responsibility and accountability of multiple individuals within a workplace, bulds up as a fluid and emergent property (not controlled or held by one individual). Distributed leadership is based on eight hallmarks, or principles: shared responsibility, shared power, synergy, leadership capacity, organizational learning, equitable and ethical climate, democratic and investigative culture, and macro-community engagement.

Ethical Leadership

Ethical leaders adhere to certain values and beliefs irrespective of whether they are in the home or office. In essence, ethical leaders are motivated and guided by the inherent dignity and rights of other people.

Transformational Leadership

Transformational leadership is a style of leadership that motivates, encourages, and inspires employees to contribute to company growth. Leadership expert James McGregor Burns first described the concept of transformational leadership in a 1978 book entitled Leadership. Although Burns’ research was focused on political leaders, the term is also applicable for businesses and organizational psychology.

Leading by Example

Those who lead by example let their actions (and not their words) exemplify acceptable forms of behavior or conduct. In a manager-subordinate context, the intention of leading by example is for employees to emulate this behavior or conduct themselves.

Leader vs. Boss

A leader is someone within an organization who possesses the ability to influence and lead others by example. Leaders inspire, support, and encourage those beneath them and work continuously to achieve objectives. A boss is someone within an organization who gives direct orders to subordinates, tends to be autocratic, and prefers to be in control at all times.

Situational Leadership

Situational leadership is based on situational leadership theory. Developed by authors Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard in the late 1960s, the theory’s fundamental belief is that there is no single leadership style that is best for every situation. Situational leadership is based on the belief that no single leadership style is best. In other words, the best style depends on the situation at hand.

Succession Planning

Succession planning is a process that involves the identification and development of future leaders across all levels within a company. In essence, succession planning is a way for businesses to prepare for the future. The process ensures that when a key employee decides to leave, the company has someone else in the pipeline to fill their position.

Fiedler’s Contingency Model

Fielder’s contingency model argues no style of leadership is superior to the rest evaluated against three measures of situational control, including leader-member relations, task structure, and leader power level. In Fiedler’s contingency model, task-oriented leaders perform best in highly favorable and unfavorable circumstances. Relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations that are moderately favorable but can improve their position by using superior interpersonal skills.

Management vs. Leadership


Cultural Models

In the context of an organization, cultural models are frameworks that define, shape, and influence corporate culture. Cultural models also provide some structure to a corporate culture that tends to be fluid and vulnerable to change. Once upon a time, most businesses utilized a hierarchical culture where various levels of management oversaw subordinates below them. Today, however, there exists a greater diversity in models as leaders realize the top-down approach is outdated in many industries and that success can be found elsewhere.

Action-Centered Leadership

Action-centered leadership defines leadership in the context of three interlocking areas of responsibility and concern. This framework is used by leaders in the management of teams, groups, and organizations. Developed in the 1960s and first published in 1973, action-centered leadership was revolutionary for its time because it believed leaders could learn the skills they needed to manage others effectively. Adair believed that effective leadership was exemplified by three overlapping circles (responsibilities): achieve the task, build and maintain the team, and develop the individual.

High-Performance Coaching

High-performance coaches work with individuals in personal and professional contexts to enable them to reach their full potential. While these sorts of coaches are commonly associated with sports, it should be noted that the act of coaching is a specific type of behavior that is also useful in business and leadership. 

Forms of Power

When most people are asked to define power, they think about the power a leader possesses as a function of their responsibility for subordinates. Others may think that power comes from the title or position this individual holds. 

Tipping Point Leadership

Tipping Point Leadership is a low-cost means of achieving a strategic shift in an organization by focusing on extremes. Here, the extremes may refer to small groups of people, acts, and activities that exert a disproportionate influence over business performance.

Vroom-Yetton Decision Model

The Vroom-Yetton decision model is a decision-making process based on situational leadership. According to this model, there are five decision-making styles guides group-based decision-making according to the situation at hand and the level of involvement of subordinates: Autocratic Type 1 (AI), Autocratic Type 2 (AII), Consultative Type 1 (CI), Consultative Type 2 (CII), Group-based Type 2 (GII).

Likert’s Management Systems

Likert’s management systems were developed by American social psychologist Rensis Likert. Likert’s management systems are a series of leadership theories based on the study of various organizational dynamics and characteristics. Likert proposed four systems of management, which can also be thought of as leadership styles: Exploitative authoritative, Benevolent authoritative, Consultative, Participative.

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