The OSKAR coaching model was developed in the early 2000s by organizational theorists and authors Paul Z. Jackson and Mark McKergow. The OSKAR coaching model is a solution-driven method used for managerial coaching in the workplace. In their book titled The Solutions Focus: Making Coaching and Change Simple, the pair layout a framework to help coaches implement training sessions that are focused on solutions and not on problems.
|Outcome||The desired goal or outcome that the coachee (person being coached) wants to achieve.||– Focuses coaching efforts on achieving a specific result. – Provides clarity on what success looks like. – Motivates the coachee to work toward a meaningful goal.||– Clear and well-defined goal. – Specific and measurable. – Driven by the coachee’s needs and aspirations.||– A coachee aims to improve time management skills to reduce stress. – An employee wants to enhance leadership skills to qualify for a promotion. – A student seeks strategies to excel in academic performance.||– Use the coachee’s desired outcomes as the foundation for coaching sessions. – Ensure that outcomes are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound). – Align coaching discussions and actions with the desired results.|
|Scaling||A numerical scale used to measure the current position of the coachee in relation to the outcome. It helps assess progress and track improvements.||– Provides a quantitative way to gauge progress. – Allows coachee and coach to visualize growth over time. – Encourages self-reflection and self-assessment.||– Numeric scale (e.g., 1 to 10) to represent the current status. – Requires periodic self-assessment and comparison to track changes.||– A coachee rates their current level of public speaking skills as a 4 on a scale of 1 to 10. – An athlete evaluates their physical fitness at a 7 on a scale of 1 to 10. – A manager assesses their team’s collaboration at a 5 on a scale of 1 to 10.||– Use scaling to establish a baseline and track progress toward the outcome. – Encourage coachees to regularly assess their position on the scale. – Discuss strategies and actions to move up the scale and achieve higher ratings.|
|Know-How||The existing knowledge, skills, and resources that the coachee possesses. These are leveraged to identify strengths and capabilities.||– Recognizes the coachee’s strengths and assets. – Maximizes the utilization of existing knowledge and skills. – Builds confidence by acknowledging areas of competence.||– Identification of skills, experiences, and resources within the coachee’s toolkit. – Focuses on strengths and competencies. – Appreciation of the coachee’s capacity to make positive changes.||– An employee possesses excellent project management skills. – A coachee has prior experience in conflict resolution. – A student is proficient in data analysis techniques.||– Explore and assess the coachee’s existing competencies and resources. – Encourage the coachee to leverage their strengths to achieve desired outcomes. – Align coaching strategies with the coachee’s knowledge and skills.|
|Affirm & Action||This stage involves affirming the coachee’s potential and encouraging them to take specific actions aligned with their desired outcome. It combines positive reinforcement and actionable steps.||– Boosts coachee’s confidence and self-belief. – Guides coachee toward practical actions. – Reinforces the coachee’s commitment to change.||– Positive reinforcement and encouragement. – Identification of actionable steps and strategies. – Reinforcement of the coachee’s dedication to achieving the outcome.||– The coach affirms the coachee’s determination to improve public speaking skills and suggests joining a speaking club. – A manager acknowledges an employee’s leadership potential and recommends leadership training programs. – A student expresses the desire to excel academically, and the coach encourages setting specific study goals.||– Provide positive feedback and recognition of the coachee’s capabilities and commitment. – Collaborate on defining practical actions to move closer to the outcome. – Maintain a supportive and encouraging coaching environment.|
|Review||The review phase involves periodic assessments and reflections to evaluate progress toward the outcome. Coachee and coach assess the effectiveness of actions and adjust strategies as needed.||– Allows continuous monitoring and adjustment. – Identifies what’s working and what requires modification. – Ensures alignment with the desired outcome.||– Regular check-ins and evaluations of progress. – Comparison of actual results with intended outcomes. – Willingness to adapt strategies based on review findings.||– A coachee reviews their public speaking improvements after several club meetings, noting strengths and areas for further growth. – An employee and manager hold regular performance reviews to assess leadership development progress. – A student periodically evaluates study habits and adjusts techniques for better academic results.||– Schedule regular review sessions to track progress and adjust coaching strategies. – Encourage open dialogue for coachee feedback and reflection. – Use review outcomes to refine and adapt the coaching plan.|
|Summary||The culmination of the coaching process, where coachee and coach summarize the journey, celebrate achievements, and plan for future growth or goals.||– Recognizes accomplishments and milestones. – Sets the stage for continued development and future objectives. – Provides closure to the coaching relationship.||– Acknowledgment of achieved goals and progress made. – Discussion of future aspirations and potential coaching needs. – Closing remarks to conclude the coaching engagement.||– A coachee celebrates successfully enhancing public speaking skills and expresses aspirations to become a professional speaker. – An employee and manager summarize leadership development achievements and discuss future career goals. – A student concludes the academic coaching journey by reflecting on improved study habits and setting goals for the next semester.||– Facilitate a summary session to acknowledge coachee achievements and future ambitions. – Discuss potential follow-up coaching or support based on coachee goals. – End the coaching relationship on a positive note with reflections and future plans.|
Understanding the OSKAR coaching model
Coaching is a vital skill for leaders and managers in the workplace. When used in combination with positive feedback and reinforcement, it can foster behavioral change in subordinates that benefits themselves and the company as a whole.
The OSKAR model is one of many solution-based frameworks available for organizations. It is not as popular as the GROW model, but it is a useful alternative that is easily implemented and simple to understand. The focus of the OSKAR approach is to help the coachee move from their current state to a desired future state with more emphasis on behaviors than actions.
The five components of the OSKAR model
The OSKAR model is an acronym of five stages. Let’s take a general look at each below:
What does the coachee want to achieve in the short, medium, or long term? What do they want to achieve in each session and how will the coachee know if each session has been beneficial?
To help provide clarity to this process, the coach should ask the coachee to imagine a desired or ideal future state in detail.
On a scale of 0 to 10, the coachee then rates where they are in relation to attaining that ideal state. Lower scores mean the individual is farther away, while higher scores mean the individual is closer. The coach should also rate the individual to increase objectivity.
In the third state, the coach helps the coachee understand what skills and resources are required to achieve their stated goals.
Some reflective questions the coach could ask include:
- What do you need to learn?
- Whose support do you need to secure?
- Are there new skills you need to invest in? Who can teach these skills?
Affirm and action (A)
In the fourth stage, the coach helps the coachee assess their current state and look for ways to improve it. While less than ideal, the individual who rated themselves as a 5 in the second step should be encouraged to think about the competencies that got them there.
Questions that encourage the coachee to open up and be kind to themselves include:
- What are you doing now that is already working? What makes it effective?
- Which areas would you like to see change? How can this be accomplished?
- What is your first step to moving forward?
The review stage of the OSKAR process takes place in a separate session. This is because sufficient time should pass to allow the coachee to reflect on what has transpired and the progress that has been made.
The review stage should then recommend actions that form the basis of another cycle of the OSKAR model. In other words, the coachee returns to stage one and redefines their short, medium, and long-term goals.
- The OSKAR coaching model is a solution-driven method used for managerial coaching in the workplace.
- The OSKAR coaching model focuses on helping the coachee move from their current state to a desired future state with more emphasis on behaviors than actions
- The OSKAR coaching model consists of five stages: outcome, scaling, know-how, affirm and action, and review. The model is a cyclical approach to continuous improvement since observations from the review stage are then used to set goals in the initial outcome stage.
- Introduction to OSKAR Coaching Model:
- The OSKAR coaching model was developed by Paul Z. Jackson and Mark McKergow in the early 2000s.
- It is designed as a solution-focused approach to coaching, especially in a managerial context within the workplace.
- Unlike problem-focused coaching, which often dwells on analyzing and addressing challenges, the OSKAR model emphasizes identifying and implementing solutions to achieve desired outcomes.
- Components of the OSKAR Model:
- Outcome (O): This stage involves defining the desired outcomes that the coachee wants to achieve. These outcomes can span short-term, medium-term, and long-term goals. The coach helps the coachee envision a specific and detailed picture of their ideal future state.
- Scaling (S): After defining the outcomes, the coachee rates their current progress toward those outcomes on a scale of 0 to 10. This numerical scale provides a tangible measure of the gap between the current state and the desired state. The coach also provides their own rating for added objectivity.
- Know-how (K): In this stage, the focus shifts to understanding the skills, resources, and support needed to bridge the gap between the current state and the desired outcome. Coachees identify what they need to learn, who can support them, and any additional skills they need to acquire to achieve their goals.
- Affirm and Action (A): Here, the coachee evaluates their current situation and identifies what is already working effectively. This self-affirmation helps build confidence and self-awareness. The coachee then identifies actionable steps they can take to move closer to their desired outcomes. This step encourages coachees to build upon their strengths.
- Review (R): The review stage occurs in a separate session from the other stages. It provides an opportunity for the coachee to reflect on their progress, actions taken, and outcomes achieved since the previous coaching session. The coach and coachee together assess what worked well and what can be improved. This reflection informs the next cycle of the coaching process.
- Application of OSKAR Coaching:
- The OSKAR coaching model is particularly well-suited for managerial coaching and leadership development in a professional setting.
- It encourages coachees to shift their focus from problems to solutions, empowering them to actively seek ways to overcome challenges and achieve their goals.
- The model fosters a proactive and forward-thinking mindset, aligning with the idea that emphasizing positive change can lead to more sustainable progress.
- Cyclical Approach to Continuous Improvement:
- The OSKAR coaching model is designed as a cyclical process, where the insights gained from the review stage inform the subsequent coaching cycle.
- The reflection and feedback from the review help refine the coachee’s goals and strategies, creating a continuous loop of improvement and development.
- By iterating through the model, coachees can consistently fine-tune their approach, track progress, and make adjustments to stay aligned with their desired outcomes.
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