ase-model

ASE Model In A Nutshell

  • The ASE model posits that human behavior can be predicted if one studies the intention behind the behavior. It was created by health communication expert Hein de Vries in 1988.
  • The ASE model believes intention and behavior are determined by cognitive variables such as attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy. The model also believes that intention predicts behavior such that one’s attitude toward a behavior is influenced by the consequences of that behavior.
  • Three cognitive variables are the primary determinants of whether the intention to perform a new behavior was sustained: attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy. Various external variables also influence these factors.

Understanding the ASE model

The ASE model posits that human behavior can be predicted if one studies the intention behind the behavior.

The ASE model was created by health communication expert Hein de Vries in 1988.

De Vries, a professor at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, has used behavioral models to develop intervention programs related to smoking, alcohol, skin cancer, and diabetes, among others.

The ASE model is based on aspects of social cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action. It rests on two key assumptions:

  • Intention and behavior are determined by cognitive variables such as attitude, social influence, and expectations around self-efficacy. 
  • Intention predicts behavior. That is, an individual’s attitude toward a particular behavior is based on the consequences the individual expects after performing the behavior. 

The model also makes a distinction between two types of variables:

  • Distal/descriptive variables – these are demographic variables that help practitioners identify and serve specific target groups for healthcare interventions, and
  • Proximal/mediating variables – the aforementioned cognitive variables related to attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy.

The three cognitive variables of the ASE model

Let’s take a more detailed look at the cognitive variables which de Vries noted were the determinants of whether the intention to perform a new behavior was sustained:

1 – Attitude

The attitude of an individual comprises the perceived cognitive and emotional advantages and disadvantages of a certain behavior. 

The starting point for exhibiting a new behavior occurs when the individual possesses a positive attitude toward it.

Someone may want to start a new exercise regime to improve their mental health. Another person may want to quit smoking to live long enough to see grandchildren born.

Positive attitudes do not guarantee the behavior will be performed, however. Everyone understands the health benefits of exercise, but many still prefer to sit on the couch as opposed to taking a brisk walk.

2 – Social influence

Social influence relates to:

  • The perception that other people behave in a certain way (social modeling). Most individuals prefer to behave in a way that society expects. 
  • The norms people hold with respect to these behaviors (social norms). In some instances, norms cause individuals to behave in a way that is counterintuitive to their normal way of operating.
  • The support individuals receive from others when performing a behavior. When someone has social support for a behavior, there is more chance they will exhibit it. If the behavior is frowned upon, there is less chance it will be displayed. 

3 – Self-efficacy

Self-efficacy describes one’s perception of their capability to perform the behavior. In other words, does the individual believe in their ability?

The ASE model makes the distinction between what one thinks one can do and what one can actually do.

The person who believes they couldn’t stick to an exercise regime for more than a week will likely find this to be a self-fulfilling prophecy.

Others may not bother to start the new regime at all.

External variables and the I-CHANGE model

de Vries later developed the I-CHANGE model to make room for how external variables influence the three motivational factors listed above.

These include:

  • Awareness factors – knowledge, perception of risk, and education level.
  • Behavioral factors – such as one’s overall lifestyle.
  • Psychological factors – such as one’s personality. 
  • Biological factors – one’s age, gender, or genetic predisposition. For example, an individual in their seventies may want to exercise more but is physically unable to because of the pain associated with arthritis.
  • Social and cultural factors – for example, how does the price of cigarettes or alcohol influence smokers and drinkers?
  • Informational factors – this relates to the healthcare invention program itself. For example, how effective was the choice of communication channel and message?

Read Next: OKRSMART Goals.

Related Leadership Concepts

OKR

what-is-okr
Andy Grove, helped Intel become among the most valuable companies by 1997. In his years at Intel, he conceived a management and goal-setting system, called OKR, standing for “objectives and key results.” Venture capitalist and early investor in Google, John Doerr, systematized in the book “Measure What Matters.”

Smart Goals

smart-goals
A SMART goal is any goal with a carefully planned, concise, and trackable objective. To be such a goal needs to be specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-based. Bringing structure and trackability to goal setting increases the chances goals will be achieved, and it helps align the organization around those goals.

Micromanagement

micromanagement
Micromanagement is about tightly controlling or observing employees’ work. Although this management style might be understood in some cases, especially for small-scale projects, generally speaking, micromanagement has a negative connotation mainly because it shows a lack of trust and freedom in the workplace, which leads to adverse outcomes.

Delegative Leadership

delegative-leadership
Developed by business consultants Kenneth Blanchard and Paul Hersey in the 1960s, delegative leadership is a leadership style where authority figures empower subordinates to exercise autonomy. For this reason, it is also called laissez-faire leadership. In some cases, this leadership type can lead to increased work quality and decision-making. In a few other cases, this type of leadership needs to be balanced out to prevent a lack of direction and cohesiveness in the team.

Agile Leadership

agile-leadership
Agile leadership is the embodiment of agile manifesto principles by a manager or management team. Agile leadership impacts two important levels of a business. The structural level defines the roles, responsibilities, and key performance indicators. The behavioral level describes the actions leaders exhibit to others based on agile principles. 

Active Listening

active-listening
Active listening is the process of listening attentively while someone speaks and displaying understanding through verbal and non-verbal techniques. Active listening is a fundamental part of good communication, fostering a positive connection and building trust between individuals.

Adaptive Leadership

adaptive-leadership
Adaptive leadership is a model used by leaders to help individuals adapt to complex or rapidly changing environments. Adaptive leadership is defined by three core components (precious or expendable, experimentation and smart risks, disciplined assessment). Growth occurs when an organization discards ineffective ways of operating. Then, active leaders implement new initiatives and monitor their impact.

RASCI Matrix

rasci-matrix
A RASCI matrix is used to assign and then display the various roles and responsibilities in a project, service, or process. It is sometimes called a RASCI Responsibility Matrix. The RASCI matrix is essentially a project management tool that provides important clarification for organizations involved in complex projects.

Flat Organizational Structure

flat-organizational-structure
In a flat organizational structure, there is little to no middle management between employees and executives. Therefore it reduces the space between employees and executives to enable an effective communication flow within the organization, thus being faster and leaner.

Tactical Management

tactical-management
Tactical management involves choosing an appropriate course of action to achieve a strategic plan or objective. Therefore, tactical management comprises the set of daily operations that support long strategy delivery. It may involve risk management, regular meetings, conflict resolution, and problem-solving.

High-Performance Management

high-performance-management
High-performance management involves the implementation of HR practices that are internally consistent and aligned with organizational strategy. Importantly, high-performance management is a continual process where several different but integrated activities create a performance management cycle. It is not a process that should be performed once a year and then hidden in a filing cabinet.

Scientific Management

scientific-management
Scientific Management Theory was created by Frederick Winslow Taylor in 1911 to encourage industrial companies to switch to mass production. With a background in mechanical engineering, he applied engineering principles to workplace productivity on the factory floor. Scientific Management Theory seeks to find the most efficient way to perform a workplace job.
Scroll to Top
FourWeekMBA