- The ASE model posits that human behavior can be predicted if one studies the intention behind the behavior. It was created by health communication expert Hein de Vries in 1988.
- The ASE model believes intention and behavior are determined by cognitive variables such as attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy. The model also believes that intention predicts behavior such that one’s attitude toward a behavior is influenced by the consequences of that behavior.
- Three cognitive variables are the primary determinants of whether the intention to perform a new behavior was sustained: attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy. Various external variables also influence these factors.
Understanding the ASE model
The ASE model posits that human behavior can be predicted if one studies the intention behind the behavior.
The ASE model was created by health communication expert Hein de Vries in 1988.
De Vries, a professor at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, has used behavioral models to develop intervention programs related to smoking, alcohol, skin cancer, and diabetes, among others.
The ASE model is based on aspects of social cognitive theory and the theory of reasoned action. It rests on two key assumptions:
- Intention and behavior are determined by cognitive variables such as attitude, social influence, and expectations around self-efficacy.
- Intention predicts behavior. That is, an individual’s attitude toward a particular behavior is based on the consequences the individual expects after performing the behavior.
The model also makes a distinction between two types of variables:
- Distal/descriptive variables – these are demographic variables that help practitioners identify and serve specific target groups for healthcare interventions, and
- Proximal/mediating variables – the aforementioned cognitive variables related to attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy.
The three cognitive variables of the ASE model
Let’s take a more detailed look at the cognitive variables which de Vries noted were the determinants of whether the intention to perform a new behavior was sustained:
1 – Attitude
The attitude of an individual comprises the perceived cognitive and emotional advantages and disadvantages of a certain behavior.
The starting point for exhibiting a new behavior occurs when the individual possesses a positive attitude toward it.
Someone may want to start a new exercise regime to improve their mental health. Another person may want to quit smoking to live long enough to see grandchildren born.
Positive attitudes do not guarantee the behavior will be performed, however. Everyone understands the health benefits of exercise, but many still prefer to sit on the couch as opposed to taking a brisk walk.
2 – Social influence
Social influence relates to:
- The perception that other people behave in a certain way (social modeling). Most individuals prefer to behave in a way that society expects.
- The norms people hold with respect to these behaviors (social norms). In some instances, norms cause individuals to behave in a way that is counterintuitive to their normal way of operating.
- The support individuals receive from others when performing a behavior. When someone has social support for a behavior, there is more chance they will exhibit it. If the behavior is frowned upon, there is less chance it will be displayed.
3 – Self-efficacy
Self-efficacy describes one’s perception of their capability to perform the behavior. In other words, does the individual believe in their ability?
The ASE model makes the distinction between what one thinks one can do and what one can actually do.
The person who believes they couldn’t stick to an exercise regime for more than a week will likely find this to be a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Others may not bother to start the new regime at all.
External variables and the I-CHANGE model
de Vries later developed the I-CHANGE model to make room for how external variables influence the three motivational factors listed above.
- Awareness factors – knowledge, perception of risk, and education level.
- Behavioral factors – such as one’s overall lifestyle.
- Psychological factors – such as one’s personality.
- Biological factors – one’s age, gender, or genetic predisposition. For example, an individual in their seventies may want to exercise more but is physically unable to because of the pain associated with arthritis.
- Social and cultural factors – for example, how does the price of cigarettes or alcohol influence smokers and drinkers?
- Informational factors – this relates to the healthcare invention program itself. For example, how effective was the choice of communication channel and message?
Product Adoption in a Tech Startup:
- Attitude: Prospective users view the startup’s software as a solution that can simplify their workflow, improve productivity, and reduce costs.
- Social Influence: Influential industry bloggers and thought leaders endorse the software, creating a strong social norm around its adoption.
- Self-Efficacy: The startup provides comprehensive onboarding tutorials, helping users gain confidence in using the software’s features effectively.
Employee Engagement in a Large Corporation:
- Attitude: Employees perceive engagement programs positively, believing they contribute to their personal growth and align with their career aspirations.
- Social Influence: Senior leaders actively participate in engagement initiatives, setting an example for the rest of the organization.
- Self-Efficacy: Regular feedback and skill development opportunities boost employees’ confidence in their ability to excel in their roles.
Sales Team Performance in a Retail Chain:
- Attitude: Sales representatives maintain a positive attitude, seeing the value in the products they sell and their ability to meet customer needs.
- Social Influence: Team leaders consistently meet or exceed sales targets, creating a social norm of high performance within the sales team.
- Self-Efficacy: Ongoing training programs and mentorship opportunities enhance salespeople’s confidence in their ability to close deals successfully.
Customer Loyalty in an E-commerce Business:
- Attitude: Customers develop a strong positive attitude toward the brand, associating it with quality, reliability, and excellent customer service.
- Social Influence: Positive reviews, referrals, and word-of-mouth recommendations from existing customers create a social norm of brand loyalty.
- Self-Efficacy: The e-commerce platform offers user-friendly loyalty program features, making it easy for customers to earn and redeem rewards.
Supply Chain Optimization in a Manufacturing Company:
- Attitude: Supply chain managers embrace process optimization as a way to reduce costs, increase efficiency, and enhance overall competitiveness.
- Social Influence: Industry benchmarks and success stories from peer companies set a social norm for continuous supply chain improvement.
- Self-Efficacy: Specialized training programs equip supply chain professionals with the skills and knowledge needed to implement optimization strategies effectively.
Innovation Culture in a Technology Firm:
- Attitude: Employees value innovation as a core element of the company culture, recognizing it as a source of competitive advantage.
- Social Influence: Company leadership actively encourages innovation by recognizing and rewarding innovative ideas and solutions.
- Self-Efficacy: Regular innovation workshops, hackathons, and resource availability boost employees’ confidence in their ability to contribute innovative solutions.
Environmental Sustainability Practices in a Manufacturing Plant:
- Attitude: Plant managers and employees hold a positive attitude toward sustainability, recognizing its benefits for the environment and the company’s long-term reputation.
- Social Influence: Industry associations and government regulations establish social norms for sustainable practices in manufacturing.
- Self-Efficacy: Sustainability training programs, eco-friendly technology adoption, and effective waste reduction initiatives boost employees’ confidence in implementing sustainable processes.
- Origin and Creator: The ASE model was created by Hein de Vries, a health communication expert and professor at Maastricht University in the Netherlands. He developed this model to better understand and predict human behavior in the context of health interventions.
- Cognitive Variables: The model identifies three primary cognitive variables that determine whether the intention to perform a new behavior is sustained:
- Attitude: This refers to an individual’s perceived cognitive and emotional pros and cons associated with a particular behavior. Positive attitudes are more likely to lead to the adoption of a behavior.
- Social Influence: This encompasses the perception of how others behave, social norms related to the behavior, and the support an individual receives from others. Society’s expectations and support influence behavior.
- Self-Efficacy: Self-efficacy is the individual’s belief in their capability to perform a behavior. It distinguishes between perceived capability and actual ability. High self-efficacy increases the likelihood of behavior adoption.
- Intention Predicts Behavior: The model asserts that an individual’s intention to perform a behavior is a significant predictor of their actual behavior. Intentions are shaped by the interplay of attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy.
- Distal and Proximal Variables: The ASE model differentiates between distal (demographic) variables and proximal (mediating) variables. Distal variables help identify target groups for interventions, while proximal variables include attitude, social influence, and self-efficacy.
- I-CHANGE Model: De Vries extended the ASE model to include external variables that influence the three cognitive factors. The I-CHANGE model accounts for various external influences on behavior, such as:
- Awareness Factors: Knowledge, risk perception, and education level.
- Behavioral Factors: Lifestyle choices and habits.
- Psychological Factors: Personality traits and psychological characteristics.
- Biological Factors: Age, gender, genetics, and physical limitations.
- Social and Cultural Factors: Societal norms, cultural practices, and economic influences.
- Informational Factors: The effectiveness of communication strategies and intervention programs.