Communication Types

Schramm Communication Model

The Schramm communication model was created in 1954 by Wilbur Schramm, widely considered to be one of the pioneering founders in the field of communication studies.

Noise in Communication

Noise is any factor that interferes with or impedes effective communication between a sender and receiver. When noise disrupts the communication process or prevents the transmission of information, it is said to be communication noise.

Helical Model of Communication

The helical model of communication is a framework inspired by the three-dimensional spring-like curve of a helix. It argues communication is cyclical, continuous, non-repetitive, accumulative, and influenced by time and experience.

Integrated Marketing Communication

Integrated marketing communication (IMC) is an approach used by businesses to coordinate and brand their communication strategies. Integrated marketing communication takes separate marketing functions and combines them into one, interconnected approach with a core brand message that is consistent across various channels. These encompass owned, earned, and paid media. Integrated marketing communication has been used to great effect by companies such as Snapchat, Snickers, and Domino’s.

Social Penetration Theory

Social penetration theory was developed by fellow psychologists Dalmas Taylor and Irwin Altman in their 1973 article Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationships. Social penetration theory (SPT) posits that as a relationship develops, shallow and non-intimate communication evolves and becomes deeper and more intimate.

Hypodermic Needle Theory

The hypodermic needle theory was first proposed by communication theorist Harold Lasswell in his 1927 book Propaganda Technique in the World War. The hypodermic needle theory is a communication model suggesting media messages are inserted into the brains of passive audiences.

Aristotle’s Model of Communication

The Aristotle model of communication is a linear model with a focus on public speaking. The Aristotle model of communication was developed by Greek philosopher and orator Aristotle, who proposed the linear model to demonstrate the importance of the speaker and their audience during communication. 

Transactional Model of Communication

The transactional model of communication describes communication as a two-way, interactive process within social, relational, and cultural contexts. The transactional model of communication is best exemplified by two models. Barnlund’s model describes communication as a complex, multi-layered process where the feedback from the sender becomes the message for the receiver. Dance’s helical model is another example, which suggests communication is continuous, dynamic, evolutionary, and non-linear.

Communication Cycle

The linear model of communication is a relatively simplistic model envisaging a process in which a sender encodes and transmits a message that is received and decoded by a recipient. The linear model of communication suggests communication moves in one direction only. The sender transmits a message to the receiver, but the receiver does not transmit a response or provide feedback to the sender.

Uncertainty Reduction Theory

Uncertainty reduction theory was first proposed in 1975 by American communication theorists Charles R. Berger and Richard J. Calabrese. Uncertainty reduction theory suggests people are uncomfortable with uncertainty and seek ways of predicting the trajectory of social interactions.

Berlo’s SMCR Model

Berlo’s SMCR model was created by American communication theorist David Berlo in 1960, who expanded the Shannon-Weaver model of communication into clear and distinct parts. Berlo’s SMCR model is a one-way or linear communication framework based on the Shannon-Weaver communication model.

Lasswell Communication Model

The Lasswell communication model is a linear framework for explaining the communication process through segmentation. Lasswell proposed media propaganda performs three social functions: surveillance, correlation, transmission. Lasswell believed the media could impact what viewers believed about the information presented.

Key Highlights

  • Schramm Communication Model:
    • Created in 1954 by Wilbur Schramm, a pioneer in communication studies.
  • Noise in Communication:
    • Noise refers to any factor that disrupts effective communication between sender and receiver.
    • Communication noise hinders message transmission.
  • Helical Model of Communication:
    • Framework inspired by a helix, presenting communication as cyclical, continuous, accumulative, and influenced by time and experience.
  • Integrated Marketing Communication (IMC):
    • Businesses use IMC to align and unify communication strategies.
    • Combines marketing functions into one interconnected approach, maintaining a consistent brand message across various media.
  • Social Penetration Theory:
    • Developed by Taylor and Altman in 1973.
    • Proposes that relationships progress from shallow to intimate communication as they develop.
  • Hypodermic Needle Theory:
    • Proposed by Harold Lasswell in 1927.
    • Suggests media messages are directly injected into passive audiences’ minds.
  • Aristotle’s Model of Communication:
    • Linear model emphasizing public speaking, developed by Aristotle.
    • Focuses on the speaker, message, audience, effect, and occasion.
  • Transactional Model of Communication:
    • Describes communication as interactive, two-way process within social, relational, and cultural contexts.
    • Dance’s helical model and Barnlund’s model exemplify this approach.
  • Communication Cycle:
    • Linear model depicting communication as one-way process from sender to receiver.
    • Lacks a feedback loop between sender and receiver.
  • Uncertainty Reduction Theory:
    • Developed by Berger and Calabrese in 1975.
    • Suggests individuals seek to minimize uncertainty in social interactions.
  • Berlo’s SMCR Model:
    • Created by David Berlo in 1960, expanding the Shannon-Weaver model.
    • One-way communication framework focused on sender-message-channel-receiver components.
  • Lasswell Communication Model:
    • Linear model dividing communication into segments.
    • Lasswell believed media propaganda served surveillance, correlation, and transmission functions.

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